Indian Wars List and Timeline

1800-1850 Conflicts

Shawnee Chief Tecumseh

Shawnee Chief Tecumseh

November 6, 1811 – Battle of Tippecanoe – The Prophet, brother of Shawnee Chief Tecumseh, attacked Governor William Henry Harrison’s force at dawn near the Wabash and Tippecanoe Rivers in Indiana Territory. After hand-to-hand combat, the natives fled.

August 15, 1812 – Fort Dearborn Massacre – American settlers and soldiers are killed in an ambush near Fort Dearborn, at the present-day site of Chicago, Illinois.

January 22, 1813 – Battle of Frenchtown –  Also known as the River Raisin Massacre, it was a severe defeat for the Americans during the War of 1812, when they attempted to retake Detroit.

August 18, 1813 – Dilbone Massacre – Three settlers killed in Miami County, Ohio.

August 30, 1813 – Fort Mims Massacre – Following the defeat at the Battle of Burnt Corn, a band of Red Sticks sack Fort Mims, Alabama, killing 400 civilians and taking 250 scalps. This action precipitates the Creek War.

Sept 19 – Oct 21, 1813 – Peoria War – An Armed conflict between the U. S. Army and the Potawatomi and the Kickapoo that took place in the Peoria County, Illinois area.

1814 – Creek War – Militiamen under Andrew Jackson broke the power of Creek raiders in Georgia and Alabama after the Creek had attacked Fort Mims and massacred settlers. They relinquished a vast land tract. (See Battle of Horseshoe Bend)

1816-1818 –  First Seminole War  – The Seminole, defending runaway slaves and their land in Florida, fought Andrew Jackson’s force. Jackson failed to subdue them, but forced Spain to relinquish the territory.

Spring, 1817 – Battle of Claremore Mound –  Cherokee Indians wipe out Osage Indians led by Chief Clermont at Claremore Mound, Indian Territory.

April 22, 1818 – Chehaw Affair – U.S. troops attack a non-hostile village during the First Seminole War, killing an estimated 10 to 50 men, women and children.

June 2, 1823 – Arikara War – Occurring near the Missouri River in present day South Dakota, Arikara warriors attacked a trapping expedition and the U.S. Army retaliated. It was the first  military conflict between the United States and the western Native Americans.

1827 – Winnebago War –  Also referred as the Le Fèvre Indian War, this armed conflict  took place in Wisconsin between the Winnebago and military forces.  Losses of lives were minimal, but the war was a precedent to the much larger Black Hawk War.

1832 –  Black Hawk War – Occurring in northern Illinois and southwestern Wisconsin, it was the last native conflict in the area. Led by Chief Black Hawk, the Sac and Fox tribes made an unsuccessful attempt to move back to their homeland.

May 20, 1832 – Indian Creek Massacre – Potawatomi Indians, kidnap two girls and kill fifteen men, women and children north of Ottawa, Illinois.

August 1, 1832 – Battle of Bad Axe – Around 300 Indian men, women and children are killed in Wisconsin by white soldiers.

Spring, 1833 – Cutthroat Gap Massacre –  Osage Indians wiped out a Kiowa Indian village in Indian Territory.

The Seminole Wars

The Seminole Wars

1835-1842 –  Second Seminole War – Under Chief Osceola, the Seminole resumed fighting for their land in the Florida Everglades. Osceola was captured and they were nearly eliminated.

1836-1875 – Comanche Wars – On the southern plains, primarily in the Texas Republic, there were many conflicts with the Comanche. The U.S. Military instituted official campaigns against the Comanche in 1867.

1836 – Creek War of 1836 – Though most Creeks ad been forced to Indian Territory, those that remained rebelled when the state moved to abolish tribal governments and extend state laws over the Creeks.

May 19, 1836 – Fort Parker Massacre – Six men killed by a mixed Indian group in Limestone County, Texas. (Also see: Cynthia Ann Parker – White Woman in a Comanche World)

1837 – Osage Indian War  – A number of skirmishes with the Osage Indians in Missouri.

November 10, 1837 –  Battle of Stone Houses –  A Texas Ranger Company pursued a band of raiding Kichai Indians up the Brazos River, where they battled near the present day city of  Windthorst, Texas.

October 5, 1838 – Killough Massacre – Indians massacre eighteen members and relatives of the Killough family in Texas.

1839 –  Cherokee War – This war was a culmination of friction between the Cherokee, Kickapoo, and Shawnee Indians and the white settlers in Northeast Texas.

July, 1839 –  Battle of the Neches –  The principal engagement of the Cherokee War, the battle culminated after the Cherokee refused to leave Texas.

March 19, 1840 –  Council House Fight – A conflict between Republic of Texas officials and a Comanche peace delegation in San Antonio, Texas. When terms could not be agreed on, a conflict erupted resulting in the death of 30 Comanche leaders who had come to San Antonio under a flag of truce.

1840 – Great Raid of 1840 –  The largest raid ever mounted by Native Americans on white cities. Following the Council House Fight, Comanche War Chief Buffalo Hump raised a huge war party and raided deep into white-settled areas of Southeast Texas.

August 11, 1840 –  Battle of Plum Creek –  The Penateka Comanche were so angry after the Council House Fight, they retaliated in the summer of 1840 by conducting multiple raids in the Guadalupe Valley. The raids culminated in a battle between the Indians and the Texas volunteer army along with the Texas Rangers near the present day city of Lockhart, Texas. For two days they battled and the Comanche were defeated.

6 thoughts on “Indian Wars List and Timeline”

  1. Hello, I want to know if these conflicts between the Natives and the Europeans lasted until the last 5/6 decades, around ’50s or’60s. Was there any battle during these times. Please help with authentic historical account.

    Thanks.

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