The American Cowboy played an important role as settlers moved across the country during the era of Westward Expansion. These wranglers of cattle and horses performed a number of ranching tasks including tending to the care of animals, riding the range to see that cattle didn’t stray too far, branding the calves, and driving cattle herds to market.
The cowboy tradition began in Spain, when the earliest European settlers came to the Americas, bringing cattle with them. As Americans pushed westward, there were already many Mexican vaqueros working cattle, and the new settlers learned from them. However, lifestyle and traditions changed throughout the years due to differences in terrain and climate, distinct styles of equipment, clothing, and the way that the cowboys handled the animals. The chief qualifications to work as a cowboy required courage, physical fitness, horsemanship, and skill in the use of the lariat.
American cowboys created a style and reputation that was all their own which was glamorized in countless books and magazine articles, especially when Texas cowboys began to drive their herds north to meet the railroad in Missouri and Kansas, and to the rich unsettled grasslands of Nebraska, North Dakota, Wyoming, and Montana. Driving the herds to reach the railroad resulted in a number of wild and wooly cowtowns, where the cowboys, who had been long on the trail, often made quite a ruckus, which was documented in newspapers, books, and magazines.
Even when the American West had been settled, writers continued to expound on the American Cowboy, who had long been seen as a rough and lonely figure who faced grueling work. For years, he has been romantically viewed in movies and television shows.
Today, many classic traditions of the cowboy are still preserved.