Fort Breckinridge, Arizona – Built Again and Again

Old Camp Grant, Arizona

Old Camp Grant, Arizona

Fort Breckinridge, also called Old Camp Grant, in Arizona was the second military post to be established after the Gadsden Purchase.

Troops from the first Fort Buchanan built it in May 1860 at the San Pedro River’s confluence and Aravaipa Creek. Its purpose was to protect area settlers and emigrants against hostile Indians and was first called Fort Arivaypa. Still, it was soon changed to Fort Breckinridge, in honor of Vice President John C. Breckenridge. In February 1861, Fort Breckinridge troops reinforced Fort Buchanan troops during the Bascom Affair’s hostilities at Fort Bowie.

In July 1861, after the Civil War outbreak, the area faced a Confederate invasion from Texas. The Army abandoned and burned Fort Breckinridge and other southern Arizona posts to keep them out of Confederate hands.

In May 1862, the fort was rebuilt by the California Volunteers and renamed Camp Stanford for Governor Leland Stanford of California. However, a few months later, in October, it was renamed back to Fort Breckenridge. Federal forces again destroyed the post in July 1865 to keep supplies out of Confederate hands.

Fort Grant, Arizona

Fort Grant, Arizona

With the Civil War over and Indian attacks increasing, the fort was again rebuilt in November 1865 by the  2nd California Infantry. This time, it was named Fort Grant in honor of Union hero General Ulysses S. Grant. Regular troops replaced the California Volunteers in March 1866.

Later that year, the post was destroyed again, this time by flooding. The troops then moved to an upper terrace on the San Pedro River’s east bank, and the fort was re-designated as a camp rather than a fort. The troops were kept busy fighting hostile Apache, who were prone to making raids on area settlers.

In early 1871, when Pinal and Arivaipa Apache requested sanctuary near the fort, they were allowed to hunt and farm the area and start a camp nearby. Unfortunately, other Apache bands continued to raid the territory during this time, and though unfounded, many settlers blamed those bands living near Camp Grant. On April 30, 1871, a mob of angry citizens from Tucson and their Papago Indian mercenaries clubbed, shot, and mutilated 144 Aravaipa Apache people, mostly women, and children near Camp Grant. Known as the Camp Grant Massacre, their actions were taken in “retaliation” for a Gila Apache raid in which six people had been killed and some livestock stolen.

Camp Grant Massacre Trial location in Tucson, Arizona

Camp Grant Massacre Trial location in Tucson, Arizona

A temporary Indian Reservation was then established near Camp Grant, but in 1872, it was moved to San Carlos. Afterward, a new Fort Grant was established at Mount Graham’s base, which was more strategically located to fight the still hostile Apache. Old Camp Grant was abandoned in March 1873.

Today’s site is situated near the Aravaipa Campus of the Central Arizona Community College between the towns of Mammoth and Winkelman on Arizona State Route 77. There are no remains.

© Kathy Weiser/Legends of America, updated February 2021.

Also See:

Arizona Indian Battles

Forts of Arizona

Forts & Presidios Photo Gallery

Indian Wars, Battles & Massacres

Military Campaigns of the Indian Wars