Tacatacuru - Living on Cumberland in
what is part of the state of Georgia today in the n the 16th and 17th
centuries, the meaning of their name is unknown but is thought to have
something to do with fire. The chief of Tacatacuru (now Cumberland
Island), or of the neighboring mainland, met French explorer Jean
Ribault's expedition in 1562 and seems to have remained on good terms
with the French during their occupancy of Fort Caroline in 1564-65.
He, or a successor, is mentioned among those who joined French
soldier, Dominique De Gourgues in his attack upon the Spaniards in
1567, but, soon afterward they made peace with Spain and one chief,
Don Juan, was of great assistance to the white men in many ways,
particularly in driving back the Guale Indians after their rising in
1597. This chief died in 1600, and was succeeded by his niece. The
church built by these Indians was said to be as big as that in St.
Augustine. The good relations which subsisted between the Tacatacuru
Indians and the Spaniards do not appear to have been broken by the
Timucua rebellion of 1656. By 1675 the tribe had abandoned Cumberland
Island and it was occupied by Yamasee. The mission of San Pedro Mocama
consequently does not appear in the mission list of 1680, although it
is in that of 1655.
In 1602 it was noted by missionaries that the tribe had eight
settlements and 792 Christianized Indians in the province. They later
became heavily involved in the Spanish mission system, and one of the
first missions in Spanish Florida, San Pedro de Mocama, was
established in their territory. Like other tribes in the area, they
were greatly affected by disease and war with other peoples through
the 17th century. They merged with other Timucua peoples and there is
no independent tribe today.
Tachi - One of the larger tribes of the Yokut
lived on the plains north of Tulare Lake in south central
By the early 1900s they had been reduced to only a few dozen
Takelma - Their name means "those dwelling along the river,"
as they first occupied the middle portion of the course of Rogue River
Oregon. Culturally they were closely allied to the Shasta
Indians of north
California, with whom they frequently
intermarried. Their main dependence for food source was acorns, which
they boiled into a mush, and also gathered roots seeds and berries.
Tobacco was the only plant they cultivated. Of animal foods, they
fished primarily for salmon and hunted deer. They lived in timer
houses that were partly underground with a raised door from
which entrance was made on a ladder. Their numbers were dramatically
reduced in the Rogue River War and by the early 1900's those few
survivors were residing on the Siletz Reservation in Oregon.
- A linguistic family consisting of the Tewa, Tano, Tigua,
Jamez, and Piro groups of Pueblo Indians, who dwelt in various
substantial villages on and near the Rio Grande River in New Mexico. Of these groups, the Tano and Piro are extinct and the Jemez includes
the remnant of the former inhabitants of Pecos.
Tewa - Their name meaning "moccasins,” the Tewa are a group of
Pueblo tribes belonging to the Tanoan linguistic family, who
historically made their homes on or near the Rio Grade River north of
When Juan de Ciliate first encountered them in 1598 he named 11 Tewa
pueblos and stated there were others. Thirty years later, Spanish
missionary, Fray Alonzo Benavides, reported their population to be
6,000, living in 8 pueblos. After the Second Pueblo Revolt of
1680-1692, many fled to northeast
where they lived with the
Hopi Indians. By the early 1900s their population had been reduced to
about 1,200. In times past, each Tewa village was divided into two
sections the Winter people and the Summer people, and the
Chief of each village would alternate between the two groups depending
upon the season. Today, the Tewa live primarily in the
Ohkay Owingeh (formerly known as San Juan
Pueblo), Santa Clara and
Tesuque Pueblos in northeastern
with some descendents also residing on the First Mesa