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Native American Tribes - A-4

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Ancient Puebloans - Often called, Anasazi, a Navajo word meaning "The Ancient Ones," their decendants, including the Hopi, Zuni and the Puebloans, prefer the name Ancient Puebloans. These Indians lived from A.D. 1 to the 14th century in the Four Corners region of Colorado, New Mexico, Utah and Arizona. They were a highly cultured tribe, known mostly for their great creativity and their building of many of the ancient cliff-dwellings that can still be seen today.

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Anishinaabe - A large Algonquin nation inhabiting the Lake Superior region. The name means "Original Men" in their own tongue. The Algonquian term for them, Ojibway, was later corrupted into the English "Chippewa." They are very closely related to the Ottawa and the Potawatomi, collectivity forming the "Three Fires." They lived in cone-shaped and domed wigwams covered in bark and rushes, and were considered especially adept at the construction and use of birch bark canoes. They were fierce enemies of the Santee Sioux.


Ani-Stohini/Unami - Part of the Algonquian-language family, this tribe lived lived in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia and North Carolina and were one of the major branches of the Delaware tribe. Living on ancient trade trails that met met at what is today Max Meadows, Virginia, many of them mastered several languages to use in trade. Their sacred hunting grounds was a strip of land with vast meadows stretching from Draper Valley westward to the Cumberland Gap. Historically, they were notable for their height. In the 18th century, George Washington referred to them as "giants" when he saw them. Today, most of the descendants of the tribe still live in the Blue Ridge Mountains. For several decades, they have been tryi8ng to gain federal recognition, however, this has been unsuccessful.



Cañon de Chelle, N.M.,1873

Historic Ancient Puebloans dwellings dot the southwest, such as

 this one at Cañon de Chelle, New Mexico, photo taken

 1873. This image available for photographic prints and downloads HERE!


Aondironon - A branch of the Neutral tribe whose territory bordered on that of the Huron in western Ontario, Canada. In 1648, owing to an alleged breach of neutrality, the chief town of this tribe was sacked by 300 Iroquois, mainly Seneca, who killed a large number of its inhabitants and carried away many others in captivity


Apache - Primarily located in the southwest, "Apache" is most likely derived from ápachu, a Zuni name for "enemy." The Apache were not so numerous in the 17th century, but they were a hostile tribe and increased their numbers by taking captives from other tribes, particularly the Pueblo, Pima, Papago, and other peaceful Indians, as well as from the settlements of northern Mexico. Made up of several tribal groups, including Mescaleros, Jicarillas, Faraones, Llaneros, Chiricahua, and more, they were collectively known as Apache.  More...


Apalachee - Considered Spanish explorers to have been the most advanced indigenous nation in Florida, they inhabited the area in northwestern Florida between the Aucilla and Apalachicola rivers above Apalachee Bay. Speaking Muskogean language, they were encoutered by Spanish explorers Pánfilo de Narváez in 1528 and Hernando de Soto in 1539, which the Spanish colonist began to call the Apalachee Province. Having a large population, estimated to have been from 6,000-8,000 people in the mid 1600's, they had a trade network that reached as for north as the Great Lakes. Traditionally, the tribe was divided into clans that traced descent through the maternal line, with chieftainship and offices held on hereditary lines. An agricultural people who cultivated corn and squash, the Apalachee were also noted warriors. They were missionized by Spanish Franciscans by about 1600. They occupied eight villages until early in the 18th century when Creek tribes to the north, incited by the British, began a series of raids on their settlements. These attacks culminated in 1703 when an army made up of a few hundred Englishmen and several thousand Creek warriors defeated the combined Spanish and Apalachee. The tribe was almost totally destroyed, and 1,400 Apalachee were removed to Carolina where some of them merged with the Creek. The remnants of the Florida tribe then sought the protection of the French in Mississippi and Lousiana. Today, most of the Apalachee live in Louisiana. Its tribal office, located in Libuse, Louisiana, serves approximately 300 members.




Apalachicola - Also called Pallachacola, this tribe, who were related to the Creek Indians spoke a Muskogean language related to Hitchiti. They lived along the Apalachicola River in present-day Florida. Around 1706 some of the Apalachicola moved from the Apalachicola River area to the Savannah River, close to the colony of South Carolina, where they were called the . Naleathuckles. In the Yamasee War of 1715, they joined in the Native American attacks on South Carolina. Afterward the survivors returned to the Apalachicola River, near the juncture of the Chattahoochee River and Flint River. Some later moved north to live along the Chattahoochee River in Alabama. After two Indian Removal Act treaties made in 1833 and 1834, the tribe was moved in 1836-1840 to present-day Oklahoma, where they merged with other Creek peoples.


Appomattoc - A tribe of the Powhatan Confederacy who spoke the Algonquian language, they formerly lived on the lower Appomattox River in Virginia. They were first encountered English explorers in 1607 and the following year were described  as having 60 warriors. Their principal village, which bore the same name, was burned by the English in 1611. As the Appomattoc population dwindled, they were vulnerable to attack from traditional western enemy tribes. In 1691, they petitioned to live among the English for protection. By 1705, they were described as having only about seven families and by 1722 they were extinct, having merged with other tribes.


Aquackanonk - A band of the Lenape Indians, they lived on the Passaic River in northern New Jersey when first encountered. Their lands were acquired by Jacques Cortelyou, in 1676 who established a settlement of Dutch traders two years later. A township later took the name, but, by then the Indians were gone.


Aranama - A small agricultural tribe who formerly lived on and near the south coast of Texas. In 1822, however, they were living on the San Antonio River and were estimated to have numbered about 125 people. As a tribe the Aranama were extinct by 1843.


Arapahoe of WyomingArapaho - The Arapaho were originally farming people, but once horses were introduced to the Americas, they began to follow the buffalo herds like the Cheyenne and Sioux. The Arapaho were probably original residents of Minnesota and North Dakota, but as expansion pushed the tribes westward, population pressures forced the Arapaho to resettle in what is now Colorado, Wyoming, and Kansas. Later, the Americans deported one group of Arapaho to Oklahoma, where they share a reservation with the Cheyenne people there; another group of Arapaho remain in Wyoming today, sharing a reservation with the Shoshone people.  More ...



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