Aleut – The indigenous people of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska and Kamchatka Krai, Russia. Though they called themselves Unangan, meaning “coastal people,” they were called Aleut by Russian fur traders in the mid 18th century. Prior to outside influence there, the Aleut were estimated to have numbered about 25,000 people. Violence and disease reduced them to only about 1,500 by 1910. In the 1970s there were about 2,000 Aleuts who could claim at least 1/4 Aleut blood. Today, more than 1,000 people claim to be of Aleut ancestry. While English and Russian are the dominant languages used by Aleuts living in the US and Russia respectively, the Aleut language is still spoken by several hundred people.
Algonquin/Algonkin – The Algonquin people, sometimes spelled Algonkin, are an Indigenous people of Eastern Canada. Before colonization by the French, Dutch, and English, the Algonquin were organized in bands of patrilineal extended families. They lived in villages of small round buildings called wigwams.
Allakaweah – This tribe or band was first encountered by Lewis and Clark who gave them the name Allakaweah, which meant “Paunch Indians.” Living on the Yellowstone and Bighorn Rivers in Montana, they were estimated to have numbered about 2,300 people. As this area was occupied by the Crow Indians at the time, they were thought to have been a band of that tribe.
Alsea/Alsi – A Yaquina tribe formerly occupying a small territory at the mouth of Alsea River in western Oregon. In 1910, there were only 29 Alsea in the census report. They are now part of the Confederated Siletz Indians of Oregon.
Amacano – A tribe or band perhaps connected with the Yamasee which lived on the Apalachee Coast of Florida in 1674 with Chine and Caparaz tribes. At that time the three groups numbered about 300 people.
Amahami – According to tribal history, the Amahami had always lived along the upper Missouri River. Although they were culturally and linguistically similar to the Hidatsa, they were closer to the Mandan. They were recognized as a distinct tribe by Lewis and Clark in 1804 but had practically lost their identity 30 years later. In Lewis and Clark’s time, their village was at the mouth of Knife River in North Dakota and they were estimated to have about 50 warriors. Disease caused survivors to merge with the Hidatsa.
Amaseconti – A small division of the Abnaki tribe who formerly resided in Maine. They took part with the other Abnaki in the early Indian wars against the English and joined in the treaty made at Portsmouth, New Hampshire in 1713. Some of them lingered in their old homes until about 1797 when the last family moved to St Francis, lower Canada, where they retained their distinctive name until 1809.
Amikwa – An Algonquian tribe found by the French living on the north shore of Lake Huron, where they remained until about 1672. They were said to have been allies of the Nipissing tribe and once inhabited the shores of Lake Nipissing in Ontario, Canada. After disease and attacks by the Iroquois, the tribe was much reduced and moved to various locations including Lakes Superior and Michigan.
Anadarko – A tribe of the Caddo Confederacy they were encountered by the Moscoso Expedition in 1542 living in villages scattered along Trinity and Brazos Rivers in Texas. A Spanish mission was established among the Anadarko early in the 18th century but was soon abandoned. Disease and tribal wars forced them to the northeast and in 1812, about 200 of them were reported living on the Sabine River. They are now incorporated with the Caddo, many of whom live in western Oklahoma. The town of Anadarko perpetuates the tribal name.
Ancient Puebloans – Often called, Anasazi, a Navajo word meaning “The Ancient Ones,” their descendants, including the Hopi, Zuni, and the Puebloans, prefer the name Ancient Puebloans. These Indians lived from A.D. 1 to the 14th century in the Four Corners region of Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Arizona.
Anishinaabe – A large Algonquin nation inhabiting the Lake Superior region. The name means “Original Men” in their own tongue. The Algonquian term for them, Ojibway, was later corrupted into the English “Chippewa.” They are very closely related to the Ottawa and the Potawatomi, collectivity forming the “Three Fires.” They lived in cone-shaped and domed wigwams covered in bark and rushes and were considered especially adept at the construction and use of birch bark canoes. They were fierce enemies of the Santee Sioux.
Ani-Stohini/Unami – Part of the Algonquian-language family, this tribe lived in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia and North Carolina and were one of the major branches of the Delaware tribe. Living on ancient trade trails that met at what is today Max Meadows, Virginia, many of them mastered several languages to use in trade. Their sacred hunting grounds was a strip of land with vast meadows stretching from Draper Valley westward to the Cumberland Gap. Historically, they were notable for their height. In the 18th century, George Washington referred to them as “giants” when he saw them. Today, most of the descendants of the tribe still live in the Blue Ridge Mountains. For several decades, they have been tryi8ng to gain federal recognition, however, this has been unsuccessful.