Atchatchakangouen - From their word meaning "crane," these
were a principal division of the Miami.
After hostilities with the Illinois
Indians, they moved west of the
Mississippi River, where they found more
conflict when they were attacked by the
once again, they briefly settled near the Jesuit mission at Green Bay, before
making their way into
Illinois and Indiana with the rest of the
Also known as the Tualatin, they were a band of the Kalapuya tribe that
formerly inhabited the Tualatin Valley in northwest
they had a hunter-gather lifestyle, they also had permanent villages they
inhabited during the winter months. Little is known of their native
customs. White settlers began to invade their territory in the early 19th
century, and by 1842, their population had been much decreased by disease
to only about 600. By 1848, it had shrunk to only about 60 people. In
1855, the government negotiated a treaty with the larger Kalapuya group
that included the Atfalati
removed the Atfalati to the Grand Ronde
Indian Reservation at the foothills of the Oregon Coast Range where they
lived with a variety of other tribes. By
the early 1900's they had further dwindled to only about 20 people.
Family - The most widely distributed of all the Indian linguistic families of North America, they formerly
extending over parts of the continent from the Arctic coast far into
north Mexico, from the Pacific Ocean to Hudson Bay at the north, and
from the Colorado River to the mouth of the Rio Grande at the south.
The languages which compose the Athapascan family are plainly related
to each other and, because of certain peculiarities, stand out from
the other American languages with considerable distinctness.
Phonetically they were rendered harsh and difficult for European ears
because of series of guttural sounds, use of tone, many continuants,
and frequent checks and aspirations. The name Athabaskan was assigned
by Albert Gallatin in his 1836 classification of the languages of
The wide differences in physical type and
culture and the differences in language point to a long separation of
the family, certainly covering many centuries. The Athabaskan family
is conventionally divided into three groups based largely on
geographic distribution: Northern Athabaskan, Pacific Coast Athabaskan,
and Southern Athabaskan. Northern Athabaskan was spoken in the
northern part of North America, particularly in Alaska and the Yukon
and included 31 languages. The Pacific Coast Athabaskan languages were
spoken in southern Oregon and northern
and included seven different languages. The Southern Athabaskan
languages were spoken primarily in the Southwest, including including
New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, and Sonora, Mexico. These languages
were spoken by various groups of Apache and Navajo peoples.
Atikamek - The Atikamek are a small, traditional
speaks their native language and lives off their ancestral land in Quebec,
Canada. Closely related to the
Cree and often discussed together,
the Atikamekw consider
themselves a distinct people and have their own First Nation with a
separate government from the Cree.
tribe or band that resided in New Jersey in the early in the
17th century. They were said to have lived on the seacoast beyond the
mountains northward from Chesapeake Bay, and spoke a language
different from that of the
Tocwogh, and Cuscarawaoc.