Cheyenne – Originally residents of Minnesota, the Cheyenne ranged west into the Dakotas, south into Wyoming, Colorado, and even as far as Kansas. Before migrating, the Cheyenne lived in permanent villages of earthen lodges and dome-shaped wigwams. However, as they adopted a more migratory lifestyle, following the buffalo, they lived in teepees.
Chickahominy – A tribe of the Powhatan Confederacy, they formerly lived on the Chickahominy River in Virginia. It was one of the most important tribes in the state, numbering 250 warriors and probably about 900 people. In 1613 they allied with the English and assumed the name of Tassautessus or “Englishmen.” In 1669 they were still estimated at a little over 200 people, but by 1722, they were reported to number only about 80. By the 20th Century, there was a mixed-blood band numbering about 200 people still calling themselves Chickahominy. The Commonwealth of Virginia recognized the Chickahominy in 1983 but continue to seek Federal recognition. Today, the tribe of approximately 840 people primarily living in Charles City County, Virginia, near their tribal center.
Chickamauga – The Chickamauga was a band of Cherokee who supported the English cause in the American Revolution and separated from the main group of Cherokee, moving far down the Tennessee River. There, under the leadership of Chief Dragging Canoe, they established 11 new settlements on Chickamauga Creek in the neighborhood of present Chattanooga, Tennessee.
Chickasaw – Although generally the least known of the Five Civilized Tribes (Chickasaw, Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek, Seminole), no other tribe played a more significant role in Britain’s victory over France for control of North America.
Chilliwack – A Salish tribe who lived on the river of the same name in British Columbia. They spoke the Cowichan dialect.
Chilluckittequaw – A Chinookan tribe formerly living on the north side of the Columbia River in Klickitat and Skamania Counties of Washington. In 1806 Lewis and Clark estimated their number at 2,400. A remnant of the tribe lived near the mouth of White Salmon River until 1880 when they were removed to the Cascades, where a few still resided in 1895.
Chilula – A small Athapascan division that occupied the northwest portion of the Valley of Redwood Creek in northern California and Bald Hills, dividing it from Klamath Valley. They were shut off from the immediate coast of Yurok, who inhabited villages at the mouth of Redwood Creek. Living above them on Redwood Creek was the related Athapascan group known as Whilkut or Xoilkut. Chilula descendants have since been incorporated into the Hupa.
Chimakuan – A linguistic family consisting of two tribes and languages are spoken on the Olympic Peninsula in northwestern Washington. Of the two languages, Chemakum and Quileute, the first is extinct, and the latter is endangered. The situation of these two tribes and certain traditions indicate that the family may have been more powerful in former times and occupied the entire region to the south of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, from which the Clallani and Makah drove them out. This, however, is uncertain. They had a high reputation among their Indian neighbors for warlike qualities but, for the greater part, were on friendly terms with the white settlers.
Chimakum – A Chimakuan tribe that is now extinct. They formerly occupied the peninsula between Hood’s Canal and Port Townsend, Washington. The tribe resembled the Challam in customs but was constantly at war with them and other Salish neighbors, and because of their inferiority in numbers, suffered extremely at their hands. By 1855, they were reduced to just 90 people. They were included in the Point no Point treaty of 1855 and placed upon the Skokomish reservation. Their population continued to diminish, and by 1890, one report indicated only three individuals spoke the language. However, the language continued to exist until the 1940s.
Chimariko – A small tribe comprising the Chimarikan family, who formerly lived on the Trinity River near the mouth of New River in Northern California. They adjoined the Hupa downstream and the Wintu upstream. In the 2010 census, 60 people claimed Chimariko ancestry, and 19 were full-blooded.
Chine – A small tribe or band associated with two others called Amacano and Caparaz in a village established on the coast of the Apalachee country called San Luis. Other evidence suggests that Chine may be the name of a Chatot chief. Later they may have moved into the Apalachee country, for in a mission list dated 1680, there appears a mission called San Pedro de los Chines. This tribe and the Amacano and Caparaz were said to have numbered 300 individuals in 1674.
Chinookan – The Chinookan peoples include several groups of Native Americans of the Pacific Northwest who shared closely related Chinookan languages and traditionally lived in Washington and Oregon, from the mouth of the Columbia River to The Dalles. The Chinookan tribe was officially by the U.S. Government recognized in 2001, but it was revoked the following year. Tribe members today continue to work at securing recognition of tribal status by the U.S. Federal government.
Chippewa – Also known as the Ojibway, Ojibwe, and Anishinaabe, the Chippewa tribe are one of the largest and most powerful nations, having nearly 150 different bands throughout their original homeland in the northern United States — primarily Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan; and southern Canada — especially Ontario, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan.
Chiricahua – The Chiricahua “great mountain” Apache were called such for their former mountain home in Southeast Arizona. They, however, called themselves Aiaha. The most warlike of the Arizona Indians, their raids extended into New Mexico, southern Arizona, and northern Sonora, Mexico. Some of their most noted leaders included Cochise, Victorio, Loco, Chato, Naiche, Bonito, Mangas Coloradas, and Geronimo.
Chitimacha – Dwelling along the delta of the Mississippi River of south-central Louisiana, the Chitmacha lived in framed houses made of poles covered with leaves or mud, with thatched roofs. Agriculture provided the majority of their diet. To enhance their appearance, the Chitimacha flattened the foreheads of their male children. Socially, the Chitimacha were divided into matrilineal (descent traced through the mother) and totemic (named for an animal) clans.