Cheyenne – Originally residents of Minnesota, the Cheyenne ranged west into the Dakotas and south into Wyoming, Colorado, and even as far as Kansas. Before migrating, the Cheyenne lived in permanent villages of earthen lodges and dome-shaped wigwams. However, as they adopted a more migratory lifestyle, following the buffalo they lived in teepees.
Chickahominy – A tribe of the Powhatan Confederacy, they formerly lived on Chickahominy River in Virginia. It was one of the most important tribes in the state, numbering 250 warriors, and probably about 900 people total. In 1613 they entered into an alliance with the English and assumed the name of Tassautessus or “Englishmen.” In 1669 they were still estimated at a little over 200 people but, by 1722, they were reported to number only about 80. By the 20th Century, there was a mixed-blood band numbering about 200 people still calling themselves Chickahominy. The Chickahominy were recognized by the Commonwealth of Virginia in 1983, but continue to seek Federal recognition. Today, the tribe of approximately 840 people most of whom primarily live in Charles City County, Virginia near their tribal center.
Chickamauga – The Chickamauga were a band of Cherokee who supported the English cause in the American Revolution and separated from the main group of Cherokee, moving far down on Tennessee River. There, under the leadership of Chief Dragging Canoe, they established 11 new settlements on Chickamauga Creek, in the neighborhood of the present Chattanooga, Tennessee. They fought against European-American encroachment until 1794.
Chickasaw – Although generally, the least known of the Five Civilized Tribes (Chickasaw, Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek, Seminole), no other tribe played a more significant role in Britain’s victory over France for control of North America.
Chilliwack – A Salish tribe who lived on the river of the same name in British Columbia. They spoke the Cowichan dialect.
Chilluckittequaw – Chinookan tribe formerly living on the north side of Columbia River in Klickitat and Skamania Counties of Washington. In 1806 Lewis and Clark estimated their number at 2,400. A remnant of the tribe lived near the mouth of White Salmon River until 1880, when they removed to the Cascades, where a few still resided in 1895.
Chilula – A small Athapascan division which occupied the north-west portion of the Valley of Redwood Creek in northern California and Bald Hills, dividing it from Klamath Valley. They were shut off from the immediate coast of Yurok, who inhabited villages at the mouth of Redwood Creek. Living above them on Redwood Creek was the related Athapascan group known as Whilkut, or Xoilkut.
Chimakuan – A linguistic family consisting of two tribes and languages spoken on the Olympic Peninsula in northwestern Washington. Of the two languages, Chemakum and Quileute, the first is extinct and the latter is endangered. The situation of these two tribes, as well as certain traditions, indicate that in former times the family may have been more powerful and occupied the entire region to the south of the strait of Juan de Fuca from which they were driven out by the Clallani and Makah. This, however, is uncertain. They had a high reputation among their Indian neighbors for warlike qualities, but, for the greater part, were on friendly terms with the white settlers.
Chimakum – A Chimakuan tribe that is now extinct. They formerly occupied the peninsula between Hood’s Canal and Port Townsend, Washington. The tribe resembled the Challam in customs but were constantly at war with them and other Salish neighbors, and by reason of their inferiority in numbers suffered extremely at their hands. By 1855, they were reduced to just 90 people. They were included in the Point no Point treaty of 1855 and placed upon the Skokomish reservation. Their population continued to diminish and by 1890, one report indicated there were only three individuals who spoke the language. However, the language continued to exist until the 1940s.
Chimariko – A small tribe, comprising the Chimarikan family, who formerly lived on the Trinity River, near the mouth of New River in Northern California. They adjoined the Hupa downstream and the Winton upstream. The Chimariko first became known to the whites with the influx of miners about 1850. At that time they were a small tribe, friendly with the Hupa and the neighboring Shastan tribes, but at war with the Winton of Hay Fork of Trinity River. In 1903 they numbered only nine individuals, including ‘mixed bloods, who lived scattered among Indians of other tribes and among the whites. In general culture, they were much like their neighbors, the Hupa, though they are said to have lacked canoes, and did not practice the deerskin dance of the Hupa and Yurok. They appear to have lived largely on salmon and eels and on vegetal foods, especially acorns. Like the other tribes of northwest California, they had no political organization or divisions other than villages.
Chine – A small tribe or band associated with two others called Amacano and Caparaz in a village established on the coast of the Apalachee country called San Luis. Other evidence suggests that Chine may be the name of a Chatot chief. Later they may have moved into the Apalachee country, for in a mission list dated 1680, there appears a mission called San Pedro de los Chines. This tribe and the Amacano and Caparaz were said to have numbered 300 individuals in 1674.
Chinook – A tribe of the Chinookan linguistic stock, the Chinook lived in villages on the embankments of the Columbia River, from British Columbia, Canada to Eastern Washington State, all the way to the Pacific Ocean. The Chinook were not nomadic, but rather, lived on a diet of hunting and fishing and were proficient whale hunters. At birth, Chinookans would flatten some children’s heads by applying pressure with a board, enabling, in turn, a social hierarchy that placed flat-headed community members above those with round heads. They were not warlike and had little conflict with other Indian tribes, instead, depending heavily on trade with them. The Chinookan tribe was officially by the U.S. Government recognized in 2001, but it was revoked the following year. Tribe members today continue to work at securing recognition of tribal status by the U.S. Federal government.
Chippewa – Also known as the Ojibway, Ojibwe, and Anishinaabe, the Chippewa tribe are one of the largest and most powerful nations, having nearly 150 different bands throughout their original homeland in the northern United States — primarily Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan; and southern Canada — especially Ontario, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan.
Chiricahua – The Chiricahua “great mountain” Apache were called such for their former mountain home in Southeast Arizona. They, however, called themselves Aiaha. The most warlike of the Arizona Indians, their raids extended into New Mexico, southern Arizona, and northern Sonora, Mexico. Some of their most noted leaders included Cochise, Victorio, Loco, Chato, Naiche, Bonito, Mangas Coloradas, and Geronimo.
Chitimacha – Dwelling along the delta of the Mississippi River of south-central Louisiana, the Chitmacha lived in framed houses made of poles covered with leaves or mud, with thatched roofs. Agriculture provided the majority of their diet. To enhance their appearance, the Chitimacha flattened the foreheads of their male children. Socially, the Chitimacha were divided into matrilineal (descent traced through the mother) totemic (named for an animal) clans.