Choctaw – This Muskogean tribe, also known as Chakchiuma, or Chatot, traces its roots to the Mississippi Valley and some parts of Alabama. The Choctaw were one of the first of the “Five Civilized Tribes” to reluctantly accept expulsion from their native lands and move to Oklahoma. See Full Article HERE.
Choula – This was a small tribe of 40 individuals who lived on the Yazoo River in Mississippi. Their name means “fox” in Chickasaw and Choctaw.
Chowanoc – An Algonquian tribe formerly living on Chowan River in northeast North Carolina, about the junction of Meherrin and Nottoway Rivers. They were said to have been a sedentary hunter/farmer tribe who spoke the Powhatan language. In 1584-85, when first known, they were the leading tribe in that region. One village called Ohanoak was said to have 700 warriors. They gradually dwindled away and by 1701 were reduced to a single village on Bennetts Creek. They joined in the Tuscarora War against white settlers in 1711-12, and at its close, the remnant, estimated at about 240, were assigned a small reservation on Bennetts and Catherine Creeks. By 1820 they had been entirely absorbed into the Tuscarora tribe.
Chumash – The Chumash are a linguistic family that traditionally lived on the coast of southern California, who was also known also as Santa Barbara Indians. At their peak, there were over 20,000 Chumash living along the California coastline. Today, there are an estimated 5,000 people who identify themselves as Chumash.
Clackama – A Chinookan tribe formerly occupying several villages on the Clackamas Alaska River, in Clackamas County, Oregon. In 1806 Lewis and Clark estimated their number at 1,800. They also claimed the country on the east side of Willamette River from a few miles above its mouth nearly to Oregon City and east as far as the Cascade Mountains. This territory they ceded to the United States by the Dayton Treaty of 1855 and were later removed to Grande Ronde Reservation, Oregon, where they were said to number about 60. Their descendants today belong to the Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community of Oregon.
Clatskanie – Belonging to the Athapascan linguistic stock, they lived on the prairies bordering Chehalis River, Washington, at the mouth of Skookumchuck River. However, when the game became scarce, they crossed the Columbia River and occupied the mountains about the Clatskanie River. For a long time, they exacted a toll of all who passed going up or down the Columbia River. They were estimated to have numbered 1,600 in 1780 but by 1851, they had been reduced to less than a dozen.
Clatsop – A Chinookan tribe they formerly about C. Adams on the south side of the Columbia River and extending up the river as far as Tongue Point and south along the coast to Tillamook Head, Oregon. In 1806, Lewis and Clark estimated them to be about 200. In an 1851 treaty, the Clatsop tribe ceded 90 percent of their land to the U.S. Government. This treaty was one of many in the Northwest that were never ratified by Congress. Unlike other tribes, the members were not required to move to a reservation, and in fact, they were the only tribe in Oregon that was not removed to a reservation. Today, there are about 200 members who have recently organized the Clatsop-Nehalem Confederation. The members are scattered across Oregon and southwestern Washington.
Clowwewalla – This tribe to the Clackamas division of the Chinookan linguistic stock and lived at the falls of the Willamette River in Oregon. Subdivisions may have included the Cushook, Chahcowah, and Nemalquinner. The Cushook were estimated by Lewis and Clark to have numbered about 650 people in 1806. They were greatly reduced by the epidemic of 1829 and in 1851 numbered 13. They are now apparently extinct.
Coahuiltecan – A linguistic family that included numerous tribes in southwestern Texas and in Mexico. It is probable that most of the so-called Tamaulipecan family of Mexico were really related to this, and that the Karankawan and Tonkawan groups were connected as well, though more remotely. They were spread over the eastern part of Coahuila, Mexico, and almost all of Texas west of San Antonio River and Cibolo Creek. The tribes of the Lower Rio Grande may have belonged to a distinct family, but the Coahuiltecans reached the Gulf coast at the mouth of the Nueces River. Northeast of that point they were succeeded by Karankawan tribes. Toward the north, it is probable that the Coahuiltecans originally extended for a long distance before they were displaced by the Apache and Comanche.
Coaque – A tribe formerly living on Malhado Island, off the coast of Texas. Spanish explorer, Alvar Cabeza de Vaca found two tribes, the Han and the Coague living there, each with its own language. They subsisted on a root taken from the shoal water, on fish, and visited the mainland for berries and oysters. The houses of the Coaque were of mats and were set up on a “mass of oyster shells.” The men wore a piece of cane, half a finger thick, inserted in the lower lip, and another longer piece thrust through one or both nipples. They are said to have spoken a dialect of the Karankawa. In 1778, about 20 families were living between the Colorado and the Brazos Rivers, opposite the island of La Culebra. They are extinct today.
Cochimi – A term originally used to designate a Yuman dialect. It was once spoken in Baja California but has not been spoken since the 1800s and the Cochimi people no longer exist as a distinct people
Cochiti – The Cochiti are a Keresan-speaking tribe and their pueblo is located on the west bank of the Rio Grande, about 35 miles southwest of Santa Fe, New Mexico. Today, the Pueblo de Cochiti contains some 53,779 acres of reservation land and sustains about 1,200 pueblo members.
Cocopa – A division of the Yuman family which in 1604-05 lived in nine villages on the Rio Colorado River of Arizona. At a later period, they also extended into the mountains of Lower California and into Mexico. They were estimated to number about 3,000 in 1775, but by the turn of the 20th Century, were reported to have only about 800 people. They were less hostile than the Yuma or the Mohave, who frequently raided their villages; but were sufficiently war-like to retaliate when necessary. They resembled the Yuma in arms, dress, manners, and customs and depended for subsistence chiefly on corn, melons, pumpkins, and beans, which they cultivated, adding native grass seeds, roots, mesquite beans, etc. The Cocopah Reservation was established in 1917 about 13 miles south of Yuma, Arizona. The reservation comprises approximately 6,500 acres and about 1,000 tribal members live and work on or near the Reservation today. In 1964, the Tribe founded its first Constitution and established a Tribal Council. For more information see the Cocopa Indian Tribe.
Colville – A division of the Salish who lived between Kettle Falls and Spokane River in eastern Washington. Speaking the Wenatchi dialect, they were estimated to number 2,500 when Lewis and Clark visited them in 1806. They are now one of the twelve bands or tribes that make up the federally recognized Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation.
Comanche – A nomadic offshoot of the Eastern Shoshoni Indians, the Comanche lived on the North-American Southern Great Plains during the 1800-1900s. The word “Comanche” is believed to come from the Spanish “interpretation” of their Ute name “Kohmahts, “meaning: those who are against us or want to fight us. The Comanche People call themselves “Numunuh”, which means: The People. The Comanche epitomized the mounted plains warrior. The Texas Rangers were organized during the 1840s primarily to fight Comanche.
Conestoga – See Susquehannock