Notable Native Americans on the Frontier

 Also See: Native American Heroes & Leaders

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Rain-in-the-Face, aka: Ito-na-gaju, Exa-ma-gozua (1835?-1905) – On June 25-27, 1876, Lieutenant-Colonel George Custer, with thirteen commissioned officers, a surgeon, and 255 men were slaughtered in the Black Hills. Sitting Bull has received the notoriety and credit for this fight; but it was his cousin, Rain-in-the-Face, who planned and executed the battle. He, himself received a wound in the fight, which resulted in his having to use crutches for the rest of his life. See Article HERE.

Chief Red Cloud, 1900

Chief Red Cloud, 1900

Chief Red Cloud (1822-1909) One of the most capable chiefs who resisted white settlement, he led the successful resistance known as Red Cloud’s War in 1866-1868. See Article HERE.

Red Shirt (1845-1925) – An Oglala Sioux warrior who served in the capacity of chief at two Sioux, a position he was appointed to in 1866 by the War Department. He was a son of Victor Renville and a nephew of the celebrated Joseph Renville. He was born at Sweet Corn’s Village, Big Stone Lake, South Dakota in April, 1824. He was a valued friend of the whites during the Sioux War of 1862-65. He died at the Sisseton Agency on August 26, 1902.

Gabriel Renville (1824-1902) – He was the last chief of the Sisseton Sioux, a position he was appointed to in 1866 by the War Department. He was a son of Victor Renville and a nephew of the celebrated Joseph Renville. He was born at Sweet Corn’s Village, Big Stone Lake, South Dakota in April, 1824. He was a valued friend of the whites during the Sioux War of 1862-65. He died at the Sisseton Agency on August 26, 1902.

Toby Riddle – See Kaitchkona Winema

Roman Nose – (1835?-1868) – Cheyenne warrior and leader of the Plains Indian Wars of the 1860s. See Article HERE.

Chief John Ross (1790-1866) – John Ross was the first and only elected Chief of the Cherokee Nation from the time it was formed until his death in 1866. See Article HERE.

Sacagawea (1790?-1812?) ­ A Shoshone Indian woman who married French Canadian trapper, Toussaint Charbonneau, and became an integral part of the Lewis and Clark expedition. See Article HERE.

Satanta (1820-1878) – Known to his people as Set-Tainte, meaning “White Bear Person,” Satanta was a great Kiowa warrior who would later become the principal chief in the Kiowa Wars of the 1860s-1870s and was known as “The Orator of the Plains.” See Article HERE.

Scarface Charley (1851?-1896) – A celebrated Modoc warrior and chief of the Modoc tribe, he is best known through his connection with Captain Jack, or Kintpuash, during the Modoc War of 1872-73. See Article HERE.

Schonchin, aka: Old Schonchin, Skonches (1797-1892) – The recognized head chief of the Modoc Indians at the time of the Modoc War of 1872-73. See Article HERE.

Chief Seattle, aka: Sealth, Seathle, Seathl, or See-ahth (1780?-1866) – Leader of the Suquamish and Duwamish Native American tribes in present-day Washington. He was known as a great leader, orator, warrior and negotiator.

Sequoya, aka George Guess (1767?-1843) – Inventor of the Cherokee alphabet, silversmith, and politician. See Article HERE.

Setangya, aka: Satank, Sitting Bear (1810?-1871) –  Setangya was a noted Kiowa chief, medicine man, and leader of the Kiowa honor society called “Koitsenk”, or the “Ten Bravest Warriors.” He was born in the Black Hills region about 1810. He became prominent at an early age, and is credited with having been a principal agent in negotiating the final peace between the Kiowa and the Cheyenne about 1840. His name heads the list of signers of the noted Medicine Lodge treaty of 1867, though he signed it with reluctance. When placed on the Fort Sill, Oklahoma reservation, he soon began resisting authority. In 1870 his son was killed by the white men during a revenge raid in Texas and he soon began to lead  attacks settlers himself. On May 17, 1871, in company with Satanta and Big Tree, he led the Warren Wagon Train Raid in Texas, in which 7 white men lost their lives. After making public boasts of the deed to the agent at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, he, Satanta and Big Tree were arrested by military authority to be sent to Texas for trial. Setangya, however, refused to be a prisoner, and deliberately inviting death, wrenched the fetters from his wrists, drew a concealed knife, and sprang upon a guard. He was shot to death by other troops and was buried in the military cemetery at Fort Sill, Oklahoma.

Sitting Bull

Sitting Bull

Sitting Bull (1831-1890) – Lakota chief and holy man, most notable for his premonition of defeating the army at the Battle of the Little Bighorn. See Article HERE.

Spotted Elk – See Big Foot, aka: Si Tanka

Chief Tecumseh (1768-1813) – Shawnee Chief Tecumseh was highly skilled warrior, orator, and statesman who advocated “civilized’ resistance.” See Article HERE.

Tall Bull (1815?-1869) – A Southern Cheyenne Chief, Tall Bull was also the leader of the fierce Dog Soldiers during the 1850s and 1860s in the Plains states. he was killed at the Battle of Summit Springs.

Chief Victorio (1825-1880) – Known as Bidu-ya or Beduiat to his Apache people, Victorio was a warrior and chief of the Chihenne band of the Chiricahua Apache in what is now New Mexico. Becoming hate filled due to being forced onto an Arizona reservation and the subsequent ill treatment of his people, Victorio escaped the reservation and went on a rampage in 1879-1880. See Article HERE.

Fred Waite – Chickasaw Outlaw Turned Politician. See Article HERE.

Stand Watie – Brigadier General of the Civil War. See Article HERE.

Chief  Walkara, aka: Walker (1808?-1855) – The leader of the Ute Timpanogo band, Walkara had a reputation as a diplomat, horseman and warrior, and was the primary  leader in the Walker War. See Article HERE.

Wovoka – Paiute Medicine Man & the Ghost Dance. See Article HERE.

 

© Kathy Weiser/Legends of America, updated August, 2017.

 

Indian Chiefs

Spotted Tail, Roman Nose, Old Man Afraid of His  Horses, Lone Horn, Whistling Elk, Pipe and an unknown Indian at Fort Laramie, Wyoming in 1868.

Also See:

Native American Heroes & Leaders

Ancient Cities of Native Americans

Frontier Skirmishes

Indian Proverbs & Wisdom

Legends, Myths & Tales of Native Americans

Native American Quotes

Native American Tribes

Old West Legends

Totems & Their Meanings

Timeline of Events

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