What’s New

Here’s more on the latest additions to our website:

Castillo San Marcos Outer Wall by Kathy Weiser

Castillo San Marcos Outer Wall by Kathy Weiser-Alexander

Florida Forts and Presidios – We’ve expanded to cover more of Florida’s numerous Forts and Presidios through history. These are only a handful of what we cover.

Fort Basinger, Florida – Ghost Town on the Kissimmee River – Fort Basinger was both an Army post and a town in Highlands County, Florida. Both are gone today, with the exception of a single historic homestead.

Relics of Ford Dade on Egmont Key, Florida – Fort Dade on Egmont Key in the mouth of Tampa Bay, Florida was established in 1898 during the Spanish American War.

Fort Foster, Florida – Fort Foster was a U.S. Army post established in present-day Hillsborough County, Florida in 1836 during the Second Seminole War.

Fort Gadsden, Florida – Built on Prospect Bluff, a prominent bank overlooking the Apalachicola River, this was the site of British Fort, Negro Fort, and Fort Gadsden.

Fort King, Florida – Fort King, Florida located in present-day Ocala, was an important military outpost during the removal of the Florida Indians.

Fort McRee, Florida – Fort McRee, Florida was one of three major installations constructed by the United States to strengthen defenses at Pensacola Bay following the War of 1812

These are just a handful of the articles added for Florida Forts. For a list with links to articles, see Florida Forts and Presidios

America’s Haunted Hospitals Will Make You Shiver – by Anna Hicks – While tales of haunted houses, hotels, and even schools throughout America are enough to make you shiver, it’s the tales of the haunted hospitals and asylums that are downright terrifying.

Cracker Cowboys of Florida – The chief tool of the Florida cowboy in the 18th century was a strong whip, and when he cracked it to herd the cattle along it sounded like a gunshot.

Shasta Chief Kimolly, late 1880s

The Shasta Indians – The Shasta Indians were a group of small tribes or divisions forming the Shastan linguistic family of northern California and southwestern Oregon.

The Sac and Fox Tribe – The historic Sac and Fox were once two separate tribes who were both Algonquian tribes whose earliest known location was on the Michigan peninsula.

Chinook Men by George Catlin

Salishan People of the Pacific Northwest – The Salishan people share a group of languages of the Indians of the Pacific Northwest, comprised of 23 different dialects spoken by various tribes.

Siouan Language Group of Native Americans – Siouan refers to a language group of Native American tribes. The Indians of the Siouan stock mostly occupied the central portion of the continent.

Absentee Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma – The Absentee are a division of the Shawnee tribe who are one of three federally recognized Shawnee tribes in Oklahoma.

Ottawa Indian Tribe – The Ottawa, also known as the Odawa, are Algonquian-speaking tribe who lived on the East Coast and migrated into Michigan, Ohio and southern Canada.

The Potawatomi Tribe – The Potawatomi are an Algonquian Native American people of the Great Plains, upper Mississippi River, and western Great Lakes region.

Lenape Encampment

Lenape-Delaware Tribe – The Lenape or Delaware tribe, also called the Lenni Lenape, are of the Algonquin family, and first lived New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and New York.

Wyandot-Huron Tribe – The Wyandot or Huron are an Iroquoian-speaking people made up of a number of bands, living in Canada, Ohio, and Michigan.

The Dutch Colony of New Netherland – New Netherland was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic that was located on the northeast coast of North America.

Iroquois Woman

The Powerful Iroquois Confederacy of the Northeast – The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee were a powerful northeast Native American confederacy who lived primarily in Ontario, Canada and upstate New York.

Catawba Tribe of South Carolina – The Catawba, also known as Issa, Essa or Iswa, have lived along the Catawba River for thousands of years, in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia.

The Ho-Chunk or Winnebago of Wisconsin – The Ho-Chunk, also known as the Winnebago, are a Native American people whose historic territory included parts of Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa & Illinois.

Illinois Indians

Illinois Tribe of the Mississippi River Valley – The Illinois Confederation, aka the Illiniwek or Illini, was a group of 12–13 Native American tribes who lived in the Mississippi River Valley.

Wabanaki Confederacy – The Wabanaki Confederacy consisted of several northeastern tribal nations including the Mi’kmaq, Maliseet, Passamaquoddy, Abenaki, and Penobscot.

The Pennacook Tribe of New England – The Pennacook tribe were an Algonquian-speaking tribe that were closely related to the Abenaki. Their home was in New England.

Fort Western, Augusta, Maine by Carol Highsmith

Fort Western, Maine on the Kennebec River – Fort Western, located in Augusta, Maine is a former British colonial outpost that was built at the beginning of the French and Indian War in 1754.

Kennebec Tribe of Maine – The Kennebec Tribe, also known as Norridgewock and Kennebis, were an early Abenaki band who lived in the Kennebec Valley of Maine.

The Abenaki People – Fighting the English – The Abenaki ,an Algonquian-speaking people, were a linguistic and geographic grouping, rather than a single tribe. The lived in New England and Canada.

The Kaskaskia Tribe of Illinois – The Kaskaskia were a tribe of the Illiniwek Confederation and made their home was along the Illinois River near present-day Utica, Illinois.

Haunted Historic Sites in Savannah, Georgia You Must Visit –  Savannah has long been considered to be one of the most haunted in the U.S. Here are some historic places with a ghostly past. Contributor Anna Hicks explores.

Kennebunks, Maine Map by by Steve Hrehovik, courtesy Kennebunks Chamber of Commerce

The Kennebunks of Maine – History Along the Southern Coast – The Kennebunks, comprised of Kennebunk, Kennebunkport, and Arundel are located on the southern coast of Maine and are rich in history.

Durango, Colorado – Railroad Town of the Southwest – Durango, Colorado, located along the Million Dollar Highway, is the county seat La Plata County and the most populous town in southwest Colorado.

September Newsletter – The latest from our world, including more from our Colorado adventure, more Colorado, Native American Ceremonies, historic text, specials and more.

The Durango & Silverton Narrow Gauge Railroad is powered up and ready to leave the Durango, Colorado, station. Photo by Carol Highsmith.

Durango & Silverton Narrow Gauge Railroad, Colorado – The Durango & Silverton Narrow Gauge Railroad, in continuous operation since 1882, makes its way 45.4 miles from Durango to Silverton, Colorado.

The Silverton Railroad of the San Juan Mountains – The Silverton Railroad was a narrow gauge line from Silverton, Colorado that was built over Red Mountain Pass to the mining camps of Red Mountain.

Ironton, Colorado – Supplying the Mining District – Located at the north end of the Red Mountain Mining District, Ironton, Colorado was established as a supply and shipping point for the area.

Guston, Colorado & the Yankee Girl Mine – Guston, Colorado, a ghost town in the Red Mountain Mining District, grew with the discovery of the Yankee Girl Mine.

Guffey, Colorado – Quirky Mining Town – Guffey, in southern Park county Colorado, displays its historic charm in quirky detail to visitors looking for a scenic Rocky Mountain escape.

Ouray, Colorado – Switzerland of America – Situated in the San Juan Mountains of southwest Colorado, the historic mining town of Ouray still showcases many historic buildings with a rich history.

Million Dollar Highway, Colorado – Consistently voted as one of the top ten scenic highways in the United States, the 70-mile Million Dollar Highway twists and turns through the mountains, providing visitors with breathtaking views of the San Juan Mountain Range and the Uncompahgre Gorge

Red Mountain Mining District, Colorado – Little remains of the towns that once prospered in the district but, about 50 structures still stand in the area.

Red Mountain Town – Queen of the District – The ghost town of Red Mountain Town, Colorado is located in the Red Mountain Mining District, about halfway between Silverton and Ouray.

Chattanooga, Colorado – Silent Today – The ghost town of Chattanooga, Colorado was located in the Red Mountain Mining District about 7 miles northwest of Silverton, Colorado.

Earl of Dunraven

Earl Dunraven and the Estes Park Land Grab – Irish aristocrat Earl of Dunraven was much hated by Estes Park, Colorado residents as he wished to own and control all of the area.

Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado – Rocky Mountain National Park, in north-central Colorado, encompasses 415 square miles of spectacular scenery and is one of the most visited National Parks.

Skyline Drive, Canon City, Colorado by Kathy Weiser-Alexander.

Canon City, Colorado’s Skyline Drive – Skyline Drive in Canon City, Colorado is a scenic and thrilling 2.6-mile road that provides unparalleled views of the area.

Eureka, Colorado and the Sunnyside Mine – The ghost town of Eureka, Colorado is situated between Silverton and Animas Forks. Its longevity was primarily due to the success of the Sunnyside Mine.

Alpine Loop and side spurs

Alpine Loop and side spurs

Alpine Loop National Backcountry Byway, Colorado – Tucked away in the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado is one of the true gems of our public lands — The Alpine Loop Backcountry Byway.

Animas Forks, Colorado – Favorite on the Alpine Loop – Animas Forks, Colorado is a ghost town located on the Alpine Loop Backcountry Byway about 12 miles northeast of Silverton in San Juan County, Colorado.

Mineral Point, Colorado – The ghost town of Mineral Point, Colorado, located south of the summit of Engineer Pass in San Juan County was once the highest town in the county.

Capitol City, Colorado – Capitol City, a ghost town located along the Alpine Loop Backcountry Byway, in Hinsdale County, once had aspirations of becoming the state capitol.

Henson, Colorado and the Ute-Ulay Mines – Henson, Colorado is a ghost town on the Alpine Loop Backcountry Byway. The Ute-Ulay mining complex is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.

Lake City, Colorado

Lake City, Colorado – Lake City, Colorado is the Hinsdale County seat and got its start as a supply camp for the area mines in 1874. Today it is a National Historic District.

Lakeshore & the Golden Fleece Mine, Colorado – The Golden Fleece Mine was located about four miles south of Lake City, Colorado near Lake San Cristobal. Lakeshore was located at the north end of the lake

Carson, Colorado – Atop the Continental Divide – Sitting at an elevation of more than 12,000 feet near the top of the Continental Divide, Carson was one of the most inaccessible mining camps in Colorado.

Early day Sherman, Colorado

Sherman, Colorado – Situated along the Alpine Loop Back Country Byway in Hinsdale County, Colorado, the mining camp of Sherman sat an elevation of 9,560  feet.

Burrows Park, Colorado – Burrows Park, Colorado is located along the Hinsdale-San Juan county line. It gained its name for Charles Burrows who prospected the area in 1873.

American Basin, Colorado – Part of the Gunnison National Forest, American Basin is a high alpine basin at an elevation of 12,365 ft surrounded by vertical cliffs in southwest Colorado

Silverton Road to the Alpine Loop

Silverton, Colorado – Silverton, Colorado, a former silver mining camp, is nestled high in the San Juan Mountains. It is a popular tourist destination today.

Central City, Colorado Mines courtesy Denver Public Library

Early Mining and Transportation in Southwestern Colorado 1860-1881 – The history of early mining and transportation history in Southwestern Colorado up until the time of the removal of the Ute Indians from the area.

 

 

 

St. Louis, Rocky Mountain & Pacific Company – The St. Louis, Rocky Mountain, & Pacific Company began in New Mexico in 1905. The coal mining company became the largest coal producer in the state.

Atop Johnson Mesa in New Mexico

Bell, New Mexico – 16 miles east of Raton on New Mexico Highway 72, the town of Bell, New Mexico, was a farming community that couldn’t make it on top of Johnson Mesa.

Coal Mining Towns of the Vermejo Park Ranch – Located west of the Raton, New Mexico is Vermejo Park Ranch, where the remains of five coal mining camps that are an integral part of the area history.

Blossburg, New Mexico – Blossburg was the first mining community established in Dillon Canyon in northeast New Mexico. Prospecting for coal here had begun before 1880.

Gardiner, New Mexico – Gardiner was the second coal-mining town, after Blossburg, established in Dillon Canyon on what is now the vast Vermejo Park Ranch in northeast New Mexico.

Koehler, New Mexico – Koehler, New Mexico is located Prairie Crow Canyon, 25 miles southwest of the other mine camps of the Vermejo Park Ranch.

Brilliant, New Mexico – Brilliant, New Mexico was first called Willow before it was organized in 1905 by the St. Louis, Rocky Mountain & Pacific Company.

Swastika, New Mexico – Mining operations at Swastika were the last to get underway in Dillon Canyon on what is now the vast Vermejo Park Ranch in northeast New Mexico.

Ghosts of Clear Creek Canyon Colorado – Clear Creek Canyon road includes several remnants of mining glory from the 1800’s, along with two ghost towns with museums, Vicksburg and Winfield.

Sugarite Canyon, New Mexico – Sugarite Canyon State Park is located on the Colorado-New Mexico line six miles northeast of Raton, New Mexico. It is part of the Dry Cimarron Scenic Byway.

Folsom, New Mexico – Along the Dry Cimarron Scenic Byway, Folsom is a semi-ghost town in Union County, New Mexico, with a history of outlaws, floods and dinosaur bones.

Raton, New Mexico – Located at the base of Raton Pass on the Colorado border, Raton, New Mexico has a long history near the Santa Fe Trail.

Granada, Colorado today, Kathy Weiser-Alexander.

Granada, Colorado – Granada, on the old Santa Fe Trail in southeastern Colorado, has a storied history from the fur traders, wild west days, and even a Japanese internment camp

Granada-Fort Union Military Road – The Granada-Fort Union Military Road ran for 200 miles south from the Arkansas River north of Old Granada, Colorado to Fort Union, New Mexico.

Trinidad, Colorado – Coal Queen of Colorado – Trinidad, Colorado, has a storied history of exploration, a trail stop, old west & native american history, coal mining, sex changes, and now even marijuana.

Old car in Conway, Texas by Dave Alexander, 2018.

Conway, Texas – Home of the Bug Ranch – Sixteen miles west of Groom, Texas is the ghost town of Conway, the last town on Route 66 before reaching Amarillo.

Jericho, Texas – Stuck in the Mud – At Jericho, Texas was the infamous Jericho Gap that during Route 66′ heydays, trapped numerous travelers on its 18-mile swath of muddy black soil.

Coal Miners Memorial, Hastings, Colorado by Kathy Weiser-Alexander

Hastings, Colorado & the Worst Mining Accident – Hastings, Colorado, a coal mining camp got its start in the 1880s. It became the site of the worst mining accident in Colorado history in 1917.

August Newsletter – Latest from our world, including part of our travel to Colorado as we explored ghost towns and much more!  Exclusive newsletter specials at our General Store included.

Ludlow and the Colorado Coalfield War – The long-abandoned town of Ludlow, Colorado was once a flourishing railroad town made famous by the nearby Ludlow Massacre in 1914.

Gilman, Colorado Company Town by Kathy Weiser-Alexander

Gilman, Colorado – A Company Town – Sitting on the side of Battle Mountain about 12 miles southeast of Avon, Colorado is the old company town of Gilman, a center of zinc mining for decades.

El Vado Auto Court, Albuquerque, New Mexico – The El Vado Auto Court in Albuquerque, New Mexico has a long history on Route 66, and after a hiatus, has been reopened.

Sandia Pueblo, New Mexico Church

Sandia Pueblo, New Mexico – The Sandia Pueblo, located between Bernalillo and Albuquerque is one of four Tiwa speaking pueblos in New Mexico.

Bernalillo, New Mexico – Situated on the northwest slope of the Sandia Mountains about 15 miles north of Albuquerque, is Bernalillo, New Mexico.

Kewa Pueblo, New Mexico – The Kewa Pueblo, formerly called the Santo Domingo Pueblo, is located on the east bank of the Rio Grande between Albuquerque and Santa Fe, New Mexico.

El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro Map

El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail – El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro, the ‘Royal Road of the Interior,’ was the earliest Euro-American trade route in the United States.

El Rancho de los Golondrinas, La Ciénega, New Mexico – This historic ranch, dating from the early 1700s, provides today’s visitors with a peek into New Mexico’s storied history at the 200-acre museum.

Glorietta and Canoncito, New Mexico on the Santa Fe Trail – Located on the old Santa Fe Trail and Pre-1937 New Mexico Route 66 are the ghost towns of Glorietta and Canoncito, New Mexico.

Pigeon’s Ranch, New Mexico – On the Santa Fe Trail and pre-1937 Route 66, All that remains of the ranch is a storied history and a 3 room adobe structure on Glorieta Creek.

Kozlowski Stage Stop, Santa Fe Trail, by Kathy Weiser-Alexnder

Kozlowski Trading Post on the Santa Fe Trail in New Mexico – Kozlowski’s Trading Post and Stagecoach Stop is located on the Santa Fe Trail just south of the Pecos Pueblo, in New Mexico.

Forked Lightning Ranch, New Mexico – In 1925, John ‘Tex’ Austin purchased 5,500-acres that were once part of the Los Trigos and Pecos Pueblo land grants, to form the Forked Lightning Ranch.

Santa Fe Trail & Route 66 in the Pecos River Valley, New Mexico – The Upper Pecos River Valley, formed by the Pecos River, is the path of the old Santa Fe Trail and the pre-1937 alignment of Route 66.

San Miguel del Vado, New Mexico – Located 26 miles southwest of Las Vegas, New Mexico is the tiny village of San Miguel del Vado that got its start on a Spanish land grant of the same name.

San Jose, New Mexico – Like its neighbor, San Miguel, San Jose Del Vado (St. Joseph of the Ford), was originally part of the San Miguel del Vado Land Grant in 1794.

The train station in Rowe, New Mexico was built in 1881.

Rowe, New Mexico – Located just four miles south of the Pecos Pueblo, Rowe, New Mexico was established as a railroad camp in 1876.

Pecos, New Mexico – Located along the pre-1937 Route 66 and the Santa Fe Trail within the Pecos River Canyon, is the Village of Pecos, New Mexico.

Bernal, New Mexico – Sitting in the shadow of Starvation Peak, Bernal, got its start in 1794 and was later located along the Santa Fe Trail and Route 66 (pre-1937).

Tecolote, New Mexico – Located on the Santa Fe Trail and the old pre-1937 alignment of Route 66 in New Mexico, Tecolote is a village located next to Tecolote Creek.

Romeroville, New Mexico – End of the Ozark Trail – The old village of Romeroville, New Mexico was situated on the Santa Fe Trail, the Ozark Trail Highway and the pre-1937 alignment of Route 66.

Dilia, New Mexico on Route 66 – Thirty-four miles northwest of Santa Rosa, New Mexico is the near ghost town of Dilia on Route 66 (pre-1937)

Rio Puerco Bridge, New Mexico

Rio Puerco Bridge, New Mexico – Heading west out of Albuquerque, New Mexico on Route 66, travelers can enjoy a scenic descent into the Rio Puerco Valley to the Rio Puerco Bridge.

Route 66 Pre-1937 Alignment in New Mexico – Route 66 in New Mexico originally went through Santa Fe but in 1937 it was re-aligned in a more direct route.

Mad Gassers of Virginia & Illinois – In the 1930s and 40s, there were accounts of a “Mad Gasser” operating in two locations – Virginia and Illinois. Was it hysteria, or something more sinister?

July Newsletter – Latest from our world, specials in our General Store and Photo Print Shop, what’s popular on our social media pages, another from our earliest days on the web, and much more!

Lizzie Borden – Killer of Fall River, Massachusetts? – Lizzie Borden, the only suspect in the ax murders of Andrew and Abby Borden, in 1892, was arrested, tried, and acquitted in Fall River, Massachusetts.

Ann Bailey

Mad Ann Bailey – Scout & Indian Fighter – Ann Hennis Trotter Bailey, better known as “Mad Ann”, was a scout, spy, and Indian fighter during the colonial Indian Wars and the American Revolution.

Mary Donoho – Mary Dodson Donoho, the 25-year-old wife of trader William Donoho, was the first American woman to arrive in Santa Fe, New Mexico over the Santa Fe Trail.

Comanchero trading with Indians by Bill Hughes

Comancheros of the Llano Estacado – The Comancheros were an ethnically mixed group of New Mexican traders who made their living by trading with the Comanche, Kiowa, and other Plains tribes.

Americana on Auction with Barnebys – Swedish online auction platform Barnebys has an enormous selection from the american market on their US website. From Americana to Andy Warhol. (sponsored article)

Hardscrabble, Colorado – In 1844 three traders from El Pueblo, George Simpson, Joseph Doyle, and Alexander Barclay established Hardscrabble, Colorado.

Joseph Doyle – Colorado Trader and Politician – Joseph Bainbridge Doyle was a trapper, Indian trader, businessman, and Colorado pioneer and politician.

Mathew Kinkead – Colorado Trader to Wealthy Californian – Mathew Kinkead was a merchant, trader, rancher in New Mexico and Colorado, before following the California Goldrush.

El Pueblo Trading Post in Pueblo, Colorado

Fort Pueblo, Colorado – El Pueblo, Colorado was a trading post established by George Simpson and Robert Fisher at the present-day site of Pueblo, Colorado.

Barclay’s Fort, New Mexico – In 1848 Alexander Barclay and Joseph Doyle built Fort Barclay on the Santa Fe Trail near Watrous, New Mexico.

George S. Simpson – George S. Simpson was a trapper, trader, adventurer, farmer, and rancher primarily in Colorado.

Fort LeDuc, Colorado – Fort LeDuc was built by French-Canadian trappers in the early 1830s about nine miles south of Florence, Colorado.

James Bowie – James “Jim” Bowie was a frontiersman, explorer, and pioneer, who fought in the Texas Revolution, resulting in his death at the Battle of the Alamo.

John Grizzly Adams

John “Grizzly” Adams – Adams was a professional hunter of grizzly bears who became well-known after his involvement in P.T. Barnum’s Circus.

William Craig – William Craig was a frontiersman and trapper from West Virginia who headed west and spent time in Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, and the Pacific Northwest.

James Aird – A Scottish fur trader, James Aird spent nearly 40 years among the Dakota Sioux in Iowa and Minnesota becoming a fur trader at Mackinac and Prairie du Chien.

Pierre Chouteau, Jr.

Pierre Chouteau, Jr.

Pierre Chouteau, Jr. – Merchant and Fur Trader – Pierre Chouteau, Jr. was an American merchant & trader who grew up to run a powerful trading company that monopolized trade along the upper Missouri River.

Bent, St. Vrain & Company – Bent, St. Vrain & Company was a fur trading company that operated in Colorado and Texas between 1830 and 1849.

Fort Jackson, Colorado – In the summer of 1837, traders Henry Fraeb and Peter Sarpy arrived at the South Platte River in Weld County, Colorado and built Fort Jackson.

Fort Davy Crockett, Colorado – In 1837 three fur trappers, Prewett Sinclair, Philip Thompson, and William Craig, formed a partnership and built Fort Davy Crockett.

Reconstructed Reshaw Bridge today

Jean “John” Baptiste Richard – Jean ‘John’ Baptiste Richard, Sr. was a trapper, trader, interpreter, and entrepreneur, who managed several trading posts in the west and built bridges.

Fort Bernard, Wyoming – Fort Bernard, Wyoming was a small trading post located along the Oregon Trail about eight miles southeast of Fort John (which later became Fort Laramie).

Fort Lupton, Colorado – Fort Lupton, also called Fort Lancaster, was a trading post established in 1836 by Lancaster P. Lupton in Weld County, Colorado.

Wagon Mound Massacre, New Mexico – Occurring near Wagon Mound, New Mexico a group of ten men traveling with the Mail Express were attacked and killed in May, 1850.

Witch Hunts in Connecticut – While not as famous as the Salem, Massachusetts witch trials of 1692, witch hunts in Connecticut began decades earlier in 1647 and lasted until 1697.

June Newsletter – Legends of America turns 15 years old. We take a look back at some of our earliest articles from 2003, along with 15th Anniversary specials.

Hannah Duston Kills Her Indian Captors

Hannah Dustin’s Revenge – The story of Hannah Duston’s kidnapping by Natives in the 1600’s, and her vicious escape, resulted in the first American Woman to be honored with a statue.

Fort Robinson Massacre, Nebraska – The military massacre of Chief Dull Knifes’ Northern Cheyenne at Fort Robinson evoked sympathy, despite the tribes atrocities in Kansas just months before.

Navajo War Leader Manuelito

Manuelito – A principal Navajo war chief, Manuelito and his followers were the last of the Navajo tribe to be forced onto a reservation.

Edward “Ned” Wilkerson Bushyhead – Edward “Ned” Wilkerson Bushyhead was a Cherokee miner, publisher, and lawman who traveled along the Trail of Tears to Oklahoma as a child.

Caddo Village Scene

Caddo Tribe – The Caddo Nation is a confederacy of several Native American tribes who inhabited much of what is now East Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, and Oklahoma.

Algonquian Peoples – One of the most populous and widespread Native American groups, Algonquian tribes consist of peoples that speak Algonquian languages and historically shared cultural similarities.

Fort Ellis, Montana – Fort Ellis, Montana was a United States Army fort established on August 27, 1867, east of present-day Bozeman, Montana.

Camp Cooke Sketch by A. E. Noyes, 1868.

Camp Cooke, Montana – In July 1866 the U.S. Army established Camp Cooke on the Missouri River, just upstream from the mouth of the Judith River in Montana.

Fort Claggett, Montana – After Camp Cooke was established, trader Thomas C. Power built a small trading post near the camp to supply goods and services to the soldiers.

Gros Ventre Tribe of Montana – The Gros Ventre and the Arapaho were once part of the same large tribe who lived in the western Great Lakes region 3000 years ago.

Eyeish Tribe of Texas – The Eyeish were a tribe of the Caddo Confederacy but spoke a different dialect, now extinct, that was different from the dialects of the other Caddo tribes.

Esselen Tribe of California – The Esselen were a tribe of Californian Indians who are indigenous to the Santa Lucia Mountains of the region now known as Big Sur in Monterey County, CA

Lucien Maxwell House at Rayado, New Mexico courtesy Rocky Mountain Profiles

Rayado, New Mexico – Located about 10 miles south of Cimarron, New Mexico on Highway 21, Rayado was founded by Lucien B. Maxwell in 1848 at the end of the Mexican-American War.

Jim Baker – One of the most colorful figures of the Old West, Jim Baker worked as a trapper, scout, explorer, guide, soldier, rancher, and a mine owner during his life.

Alexander Culbertson – Fur trader and diplomat, Alexander Culbertson was born at Chambersburg, Pennsylvania n May 20, 1809.

Robert Campbell – Frontiersman, fur trader, merchant and Indian Commissioner, Robert Campbell was born in Ireland on February 4, 1804.

James Kipp, 1862

James Kipp – Long Time Fur Trader – James Kipp VI was born on March 15, 1788 near Montreal and would play a role in the establishment of a couple of forts for the Columbia Fur Trading Company.

Joseph Lafayette Meek – Joseph Lafayette “Joe” Meek was a trapper, trader, pioneer, lawman, and politician who was important during the establishment of Oregon Territory.

Joshua Pilcher – Joshua Pilcher was a trapper, trader, and Indian agent, who was born in Culpeper County, Virginia on March 15, 1790.

"Old Bill" Williams

“Old Bill” Williams – William Sherley Williams, better known as “Old Bill”, was a Mountain Man, explorer, army scout, and frontiersman.

Joaquin Antoine Leroux – Joaquin Antoine Leroux, also known as Watkins Leroux, was a celebrated 19th-century mountain man, scout, and trail guide based in New Mexico.

Cayuse Tribe of Washington and Oregon – Of the Waiilatpuan language stock, the Cayuse tribe was originally located in northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington state.

Chief Powhatan – Wahunsunacawh – Chief Powhatan, known as Wahunsunacawh to his tribe, was the chief ruler of the Powhatan Confederacy.

Cherokee Chief Bowl

Chief Bowl – Cherokee Leader in Texas – Known to his tribe as Diwal’li, Chief Bowl would work to secure land in Texas before being struck down at the battle of Neches.

Crystal City, North Dakota Ghost Town – Located along I-94 about 7.5 miles east of Tappen is the once thriving town of Crystal Springs, North Dakota, which is now a ghost town.

Arena, North Dakota Main Street, by Kathy Weiser

Arena, North Dakota Ghost Town – A complete ghost town today, with no residents, Arena North Dakota is located in Burleigh County, about 35 miles northeast of Bismarck.

Francois Xavier Aubry – Skimmer of the Plains – Francois Xavier Aubry was a French Canadian merchant, wagon train captain, and explorer of the American Southwest.

Aubry Cut-off of the Santa Fe Trail – Francois Xavier Aubry was constantly searched along the Santa Fe Trail when he blazed the Aubry Cutoff

The White Massacre on the Santa Fe Trail in New Mexico -The White Massacre occurred in northeastern New Mexico in October 1849 when the Jicarilla Apache attacked a wagon train near the Point of Rocks, New Mexico.

The Battle of Taos in 1847, during the Mexican-American War, depicting the death of Captain John H.K. Burgwin during the siege of the Taos pueblo.

Taos, New Mexico Revolt – The Taos Revolt was an insurrection in January 1847 by Hispano and Puebloan allies against the United States’ occupation of present-day northern New Mexico.

The Tiguex War of New Mexico – “During Coronado’s Expedition he and his men invaded the villages of the Tiguex people living along the Rio Grande River.

The Mythical Seven Cities of Cíbola – Tales of unimaginable riches in the land north of Mexico fired the Spanish imagination ever since the Spanish arrival in the “New World”.

Francisco Vazquez de Coronado – Exploring the Southwest – Francisco Vazquez de Coronado led the Coronado Expedition from Mexico throughout the southwest up into Kansas.

Turley’s Mill at Arroyo Hondo, New Mexico – Turley’s Mill, a favorite stop for trappers and traders traveling along the Taos Trail, was established by Simeon Turley in about 1830.

Fort Union, New Mexico and the Mescalero Apache – After bolting from the Fort Sumner Reservation in 1865, the Mescalero Apache hid themselves in the Guadalupe and Sacramento Mountains of southern New Mexico

Kiowa & Comanche Fight the Troops at Fort Union, New Mexico – For the first 30 years of the Santa Fe Trail Kiowa and Comanche bands who roamed the Plains made travel on the trail a perilous undertaking.

Battle of the Pecos River, New Mexico – After the Mescalero Apache were placed on the Bosque Redondo Reservation near Fort Sumner, New Mexico, they were constantly raided by the Navajo.

New Mexico Indian Battles  – Battles and Massacres of the Indian Wars in New Mexico.

Battle of Summit Springs, Colorado – The Battle of Summit Springs, on July 11, 1869, near Sterling, Colorado, broke for all time the power of the Cheyenne Dog Soldiers on the central Plains. It would later be depicted in Buffalo Bill Cody’s Wild West Show.

An etching that appeared in the December 6, 1879 edition of Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper depicts the aftermath of the "Meeker Massacre." Meeker grave at lower left; W.H. Post grave at lower right

Meeker Massacre in Colorado – The Meeker Massacre was one of the most violent expressions of Indian resentment against the reservation system.

Battle of Milk Creek, Colorado – On September 29, 1879, the same day that the Meeker Massacre occurred, the Battle of Milk Creek was fought between Ute Indians and soldiers.

The Ute War in Colorado – After Fort Union, New Mexico soldiers route the Apache in 1854, they went after the Ute tribe.

Apache War in New Mexico – The Jicarilla Apache roamed over much of northern New Mexico and in 1854 violence broke out between them and the U.S. Army.

Alexander Barclay – British Trader on the Santa Fe Trail – Born in London, Alexander Barclay would become a trader in the American West and establish Barclay’s Fort along the Santa Fe Trail in New Mexico.

Zoar, Ohio Historic Village – The Village of Zoar, Ohio is a well-preserved early 19th-century communal village founded in 1817 by a group of German ‘Separatists’.

Main Street in New Harmony, Indiana today.

New Harmony, Indiana – Utopia in the Midwest – A historic town on the Wabash River in Posey County, Indiana, New Harmony was founded by the Harmony Society in 1814.

The Johnstown, Pennsylvania Flood of 1889 – The disastrous flooding Of Johnstown, Pennsylvania in 1869, killing over 2,000, was due to the poor maintenance of the South Fork Dam.

General Winfield S. Hancock

Hancock’s War on the Plains – General Winfield Hancock left Fort Leavenworth, Kansas early in March 1867 upon a campaign designed to bring the Indians into submission.

Battle of Crooked Creek, Kansas – Brevet Major Earl Van Dorn, in command of the Second Cavalry, was chasing the Comanche Indians when the Battle of Crooked Creek, Kansas occurred.

Great Western Cattle Trail

The Great Western Cattle Trail – The Great Western Cattle Trail was used during the 19th century for movement of cattle and horses to markets in eastern and northern states.

Early Exploration and the Fur Trade in Colorado – From the Spanish, to fur traders, the Bureau of Land Management writes about the early exploration and trade in the Colorado.

The heart of the Rockies

Early Trails of Colorado – Across Colorado’s prairies and mountains, layers of asphalt cover many of the paths first cut by the region’s indigenous peoples centuries ago.

Bob Dozier – Killed at the hands of Bass Reeves – Robert ‘Bob’ Dozier was a farmer turned outlaw who committed multiple crimes in Oklahoma before he was tracked down by Bass Reeves.

Jay Em, Wyoming – Barely Holding On – Jay Em is a ghost town in Wyoming that got its start along a watering hole on the old Texas Trail in Goshen County.

Jim Moore – Notable Pony Express Rider & Rancher – James “Jim” Alexander Moore was one of the first Pony Express riders hired in the St. Joseph, Missouri division and later became an influential rancher.

Julesburg, Colorado today, courtesy Uncover Colorado

Julesburg, Colorado – Wicked in the West – The sleepy agricultural town of Julesburg, Colorado wasn't always quiet. In fact, at one time, it was referred to as “The Wickedest City in the West.”

Battle of Julesburg, Colorado – Following the massacre of Native Americans at Sand Creek, a number of Colorado and Kansas tribes began to intensify hostilities. Julesburg would be a target.

Cherokee Trail Map, courtesy Playground Trail

Cherokee Trail – An Alternate Route to the West – The Cherokee Trail was an overland trail through Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana that was used from the late 1840s up to the 1890s.

May Newsletter – A salute to the Great Migration, May 22, 1843, a Wyoming adventure, history of National Cemeteries and Memorial day, latest from our world and a sneak peak at Anniversary Specials.

Code Young – Cowboy Outlaw – Hailing from Texas, Code Young was working as a cowboy near Roswell, New Mexico before becoming a member of the High Fives Gang.

George West Musgrave

George West Musgrave – All-Around Bad Man – An outlaw member of the High Fives Gang, Musgrave, a cheerful and soft-spoken man, was a cattle rustler, robber, and killer.

Bob Hayes- Riding With the High Fives Gang – Bob Hayes, aka: Sam Hassell, John West was an outlaw, he began his criminal career as a horse thief before becoming a member of the High Fives Gang.

Black Jack Will Christian

Will “Black Jack” Christian – Leading the High Fives Gang – Will “Black Jack” Christian was the leader of a gang of robbers called the High Fives Gang, committing crimes in Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Arizona.

Jules Beni – Corruption and Violence in Old Julesburg, Colorado – Jules Beni (sometimes referred to as Jules Reni) was a western outlaw who was the corrupt manager of the Central Overland, California & Pike’s Peak Express.

Oregon-California Trail Facts – Dozens of facts about the overland trails to the west coast.

Crime and Punishment on the Overland Trails – Given the extremes which tested overland trail emigrants to their limits, the evidence of crime among the travelers was low, but it did happen.

Trading with the Indians

Indians and Emigrants on the Overland Trails – Contrary to Hollywood depictions and popular myths that portray the natives in a negative light as savages, the historical record presents a different story.

Oregon-California Trail Timeline – For 25 years, as many as 500,000 people traveled the overland trails to Oregon, California, and Utah. Here’s a timeline that looks at events leading up to and through the migration.

Ephraim Brown – Murdered on the Oregon Trail – Missouri pioneer, Ephraim James Brown, is the only man who was murdered on the Oregon Trail whose grave remains with a known location.

Why a Trail to Oregon? – All explorers, nearly all pioneers, and certainly all the fur traders who headed to the American West belonged to a restless breed. Excerpted from The Oregon Trail; the Missouri River to the Pacific Ocean, Federal Writers Project, 1939.

Hall Jackson Kelley – Promoting the Oregon Trail – Hall Jackson Kelley was writer and teacher from New England who was known for his strong advocacy for western settlement of the Oregon Country in the 1830s.

Oregon Trail pioneers pass through the sand hills, painting by William Henry Jackson

Disease and Death on the Overland Trails – Healthcare in the frontier was an imperfect science in the mid-19th century, and mortality rates were lamentably high.

Danger and Hardship on the Oregon Trail – Though much of written history looks at the 2,000-mile Oregon Trail as romantic, almost one in ten who embarked on the trail would not survive.

Historic Idaho City, Idaho

Idaho City, Idaho – Queen of the Boise Basin – Idaho City, Idaho was once bustling with miners living in the largest town between St. Louis and San Francisco.

Sumner Pinkham

Sumner Pinkham – Dead at the Hands of a Gunfighter – Sumner Pinkham, who was the first sheriff of Boise County, Idaho was killed by gunfighter Ferd Patterson in 1865.

Ferd Patterson – Living and Dying by the Gun  Ferdinand “Ferd” J. Patterson was a “dandy” gambler, gunfighter, and outright killer who made the rounds of California, Idaho, and Oregon, and Washington.

Sailor’s Diggings & the Triskitt Gang’s Lost Loot – The bustling miners camp of Sailors’ Diggings, Oregon was visited by the murderous Triskett Gang, who were said to have left behind their stolen loot. Today there’s nothing left of the town that was once the county seat.

Wagon Train Attack

Utter-Van Ornum Massacre – In 1860 one of the worst massacres along the Oregon Trail took place in Idaho involving a wagon train of 44 people who would be attacked by Indians.

Sager Orphans on the Oregon Trail – The Sager family traveled the Oregon Trail in 1844. The children were orphaned and would suffer more tragedy before their ordeal was complete.

April Newsletter – The latest from our world includes a hat tip to our Texas friend, some campfire goodies, popular stories of the last month on our social media and much more.

Mormon Handcart Pioneers

Mormon Handcart Pioneers

Mormon Handcart Tragedy of 1856 – The Mormon handcart pioneers were participants in the migration of members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints to Salt Lake City, Utah. In 1856, over 200 would perish on their journey.

Henry Hudson – An English explorer, Hudson is best known for his explorations of present-day Canada and parts of the northeastern United States.

March Newsletter – We’re back on TV… well, any streaming device really.. and Arizona Ghostriders has some fun with words using Legends of America. That and Women’s History Month in the latest from our world.

Massacre in Michigan – The Bath School Disaster – Still the deadliest attack on a U.S. School, the Bath School Disaster resulted in the deaths of 44, mainly children, in a small Michigan village in 1927.

February Newsletter – Our latest newsletter includes a salute to Black History Month, a cool ghost town in New Mexico, Presidential Trivia and more!

Wyatt Earp

Tales of the Shotgun-Messenger Service – What was once lost is new again! Kathy added this great story written by Wyatt Earp years ago, but apparently it was never linked to from other pages, and probably never viewed. So it’s new right? Wyatt tells of the Wells Fargo Shotgun-Messenger Service in this piece he wrote in 1896.

January Newsletter – The latest from our world, featured stories and more.

To see what else you might have missed, check out our archive of newsletters here

 

4 thoughts on “What’s New”

  1. I am trying to find out more about the stage lines in Arizona (specifically linking from Phoenix to Flagstaff, Prescott, and those mining towns west (Bumble Bee, Jerome, etc.) I’m writing about the reason folks originally ‘camped’ there and why folks still live there. These sites were stage stops… and some are either ghost towns or simply gone.

    The more ‘famous’ stage lines are well known (Butterfield) but I’m only interested in the above for now.

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