We welcome corrections
CD's - DVD's
Legends' Photo Prints
Ghost Town Prints
Old West Prints
Route 66 Prints
States, Cities &
Photo Art Prints
David Fisk (Lens of
Indian War Battle Summaries
<< Previous 1
Apache Pass - Fort Bowie
(1862) - Located in forbidding Apache Pass, a landmark on the Overland Stage road, Fort Bowie played a significant role in the wars with the Chiracahua
Apache. Here in February 1861, even before the fort was established, Lieutenant George Bascom faced Cochise in a dramatic confrontation that touched off a quarter-century of bloody hostilities between the
Chiricahua and white invaders, and a personal ten-year war between Cochise and the U.S. Army. General James H. Carleton, leading a Federal army eastward in 1862 to head off the Confederate invasion of New Mexico, founded Fort Bowie, and fought for two days, July 15th and 16th, a battle with the Apaches for control of the nearby Apache Springs.
Thereafter, until the final surrender of Geronimo, the post operated as a base for scouts, patrols, and major offensives against the Apaches. Most notably, Fort Bowie served as headquarters of General George Crook and his successor Nelson A. Miles in the campaigns deep into Mexico that brought about the surrender of Geronimo and his band. From the Fort Bowie parade grounds, in September 1886, Geronimo and his people started on their journey to Florida and imprisonment. The National Historic Site is operated by the National
Park Service. More ...
Fort Bowie National Historic Site
3203 South Old Fort Bowie Road
Bowie, Arizona 85605
Wash (1882) - In what is now Cocnino County, Arizona
a column of the 6th Cavalry from
Fort Whipple , Arizona
led by Captain Adna R. Chaffee mauled a party of 54 White Mountain Apaches led
by Nantiatish on July 17, 1882. The warriors, aroused by the death of their
medicine man, Nakaidoklini, the year before in the
Cibecue Creek and resenting the intrusion of settlers and miners, had fled
the White Mountain (Fort
Apache) Reservation. They raided the San Carlos Agency,
plundered settlements in the Tonto Basin, and for some time evaded the 14
cavalry troops from various Arizona
forts who were giving pursuit. Spying Chaffee's force from the Mogollon Rim, the
Indians planned an ambush in a canyon seven miles to the north. Chaffee,
forewarned by scouts, dismounted and formed a skirmish line with part of his
force at the brink of the canyon to pin down his opponents, on the opposite rim.
He then deployed two parties that surprised them on the flanks.
The trail road from Mogollon Rim passes along Chaffee's approach route and
terminates at the canyon brink where the fighting began. A stone monument at the
southern edge of the canyon describes the action and lists the names of the
soldier participants. The heavy pine forests and rugged canyon are unchanged
from 1882. A marker describing the battle is located at General Springs. The battlefield site is in the Coconino National
Forest, on a rough trail road, about 7 miles north of General Springs, which is
located on Mogollon Rim Road.
Camp Grant Massacre
(1871) - Situated at the confluence of the San Pedro River and Aravaipa
Creek, the location of Camp Grant was the
home of the Aravaipa
they had been driven from it by white settlers. In February, 1871 five starving
old Aravaipa women came to the camp under a flag of truce asking for sanctuary,
which was granted by Lieutenant Royal Emerson Whitman. Before long, over 500
Aravaipas, under Chief Eskiminzin, had gathered in the area, asking that they be
allowed to grow crops along the reek to feed their people. This too was allowed
and Whitman also arranged for them to "earn their keep" by working as farmhands
for the local ranchers as well as extracting a promise from them that none of
the tribe would participate in any raids.
were continuing their raids at this time, many of which were blamed on the
Aravaipa at Camp Grant. On April 30,
1871, an angry mob of citizens from Tucson and their Papago Indian mercenaries
attacked the Aravaipa camp, clubbing, shooting 144 people, mostly women and
children. All but eight of the corpses were women and children, as the men had
been off hunting in the mountains. The attack was made in retaliation for a Gila
Apach raid in which six people had been killed and some livestock stolen.
Twenty-seven children who were captured, were sold in Mexico by the Papago
After the massacre, a trial was demanded by
President Ulysses S. Grant, who threatened to put the state under martial law if
the Governor failed to act. However, at the trial that occurred later in the
year, the jury took just 19 minutes to acquit more than 100 defendants who were
named in the attack.
Canyon de Chelly (1864) - This
Navajo citadel was the scene of climatic events in the conquest of the
Navajo Indians by the U.S. Army Colonel Christopher C. "Kit" Carsonís invasion of this bastion of
Navajo defenses in the winter of 1863 - 1864.
January 12, 1864,
Carson invaded Canyon de Chelly,
Navajos with livestock, killing 11 of them and taking four
captives, as well as a herd of sheep and goats. Over the next few days, a number
of skirmishes were fought between the Indians and
Carsonís forces. On January
16th, 150 starving
Navajos surrendered and soon joined some 8,000 of their
people in the tragic "Long Walk" across New Mexico to
the Bosque Rendondo at Fort Sumner.
In 1868, after four years of exile, they were allowed to return to their homeland. The site is operated by the National Park Service. The Visitor Center is
three miles from Route 191 in Chinle, Arizona.
Canyon de Chelly, Arizona.
This image available for photographic prints HERE!
Canyon de Chelly National Monument
PO Box 588
Chinle, Arizona 86503
Cibecue (1881) - Located on the White Mountain Apache Reservation, the Battle of Cibecue, occurring on August 30, 1881, was brought on by the influence of a shaman, Nockadelklinne, who preached a doctrine of raising the dead and removing the white interlopers from Arizona. Alarmed civilians and military personnel wanted the shaman arrested. Fighting erupted shortly after Nockadelklinneís arrest along Cibecue Creek. The Prophet, as he was called, died in the aftermath, as did several soldiers under Colonel Eugene Asa Carr. Most of Carrís casualties resulted from the mutiny of the White Mountain Apache scouts. The Cibecue affair touched off a general outbreak that saw
Chiricahua and Warm Springs Apaches such as Naiche, Juh, and Geronimo bolt the reservation and plunge Arizona, New Mexico, and northern Mexico into two years of turmoil. Cibecue battlefield is located in the village of Cibecue. No marker denotes the site.
Hualapai War (1865-1868) - Like other tribes, the
disturbed by increased settler traffic upon their lands and when one of their
leaders, by the name of Anasa, was murdered by a drunken settler in April, 1865,
tensions erupted into war. In retaliation for the murder, the Hualapai cut off
the Fort Mojave-Prescott Toll Road to the Colorado River ports and raided anyone
trying to get through. However, Captain
W.H. Hardy soon negotiated a peace agreement at Beale Springs and the raids and
the fighting stopped. But, it didn't last. Nine months later, another leader,
Chief Wauba Yuma was murdered over a treaty dispute and the raids began again in
full force. In response, the Fort Mojave
Cavalry was sent out which resulted in
the cavalry burning villages and a number of battles. The war lasted until
December, 1868, as the
Hualapai began to surrender as whooping cough and
dysentery was weakening their ranks. Though the vast majority surrendered, one
warrior by the name of Sherum continued the battle for another two years. The
violence finally ceased in 1870. During these years, it is estimated that
one-third of the
people were killed either by the conflict or disease.
Salt River Canyon
(Skeleton Cave) Battlefield (1872) -
The Army won its
most striking victory in the long history of
Apache warfare at this site, where
General George Crook
also tasted triumph in his Tonto Basin campaign. At dawn on December 28, 1872, a
130-man force, consisting of about two companies of the 5th Cavalry from
McDowell and Old Camp Grant and 30
Apache scouts, under the command of
Captain William H. Brown, surprised a band of more than a hundred Yavapais as
they tried to emerge from a cave deep in the recesses of Salt River Canyon. The
refused to surrender. Some of Brown's men shot at the roof of the cave and
deflected a deadly fire into the defenders. Other soldiers completed the
destruction by rolling boulders over the cliffs above. About 75
died, and most of the rest were captured. This victory, along with
aggressive measures, so lowered the morale of the Yavapais that on April 6,
1873, they made peace at Camp Verde.
The natural setting is unimpaired. The cave lies on the north wall of the canyon
in the angle of a sharp turn to the south. Access is gained by climbing a steep
mountainside, crossing a lava bed, and descending from the rim of the gorge by a
trail on the face of the cliff. The cave is an elliptical undercut about 65 by
25 feet, situated at the base of a cliff 170 feet high and at the top of a steep
slope falling away some 1,200 feet to the water below. The cave's ceiling is
blackened from the smoke of Indian fires and scarred by carbine bullets. The
U.S. Bureau of Reclamation has jurisdiction over the site.
Salt River Canyon is in
Maricopa County near Horse Mesa Dam. The dam is bounded on the east by
Apache Lake and on the southwest by
Canyon Lake (Salt River). The site is accessible only with great difficulty and
the aid of guides, by boat from Canyon Lake or by unimproved road from the town
of Horse Mesa.
Skeleton Canyon (1886) -
On September 4, 1886, Geronimo and less than 40 Apaches, including women and children, surrendered to Brigadier General Nelson Miles at Skeleton Canyon, near the Arizona and New Mexico border. Geronimo's surrender marked the end of the Apache Wars in the Southwest. Geronimo and all the
Chiricahuas, including those who were peacefully settled on reservations, were uprooted and imprisoned in Florida. Ultimately, the
Chiricahuas were relocated at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, where they remained as prisoners of war until 1913. In that year, about 200 of the 300 surviving
Chiricahua Apaches elected to resettle in New Mexico on the Mescalero Reservation. Geronimo died in 1909. The site is on private land.
Turret Peak (1873) - The Battle of Turret Peak in south central Arizona was one of the pivotal fights that broke the backs of the Apaches and Yavapais in their efforts to resist white encroachment into their lands. Fought on March 27, 1873, the battle of Turret Peak formed part of General George Crook's Tonto Basin campaign to force the Apaches and Yavapais to submit to reservations. Captain George Randall, leading a small force, which included Apache scouts, surprised a rancheria ensconced near the crest of Turret Peak. The battle at Turret Peak proved to the Indians that there was no sanctuary from the soldiers. Two weeks later, most of the Apaches and Yavapais surrendered to General George Crook at Camp Verde, Arizona. The site is within the jurisdiction of the National Forest Service.
Infernal Caverns (1867) -
After numerous attacks on white settlers in
General George Crook
was sent west to quell
Indian uprisings. In September, 1867,
with the 39th Mounted Infantry, tracked a group of Indians,
comprised of about 75 Paiutes, 30 Pit River, and a few
Modoc warriors, to a desolate spot on the
border, called Infernal Caverns. On September 26-27, a two day battle occurred
which left 20 Indians dead, including a number of women and children. Eight
soldiers were killed in the battle. Infernal Caverns, also known as Hell Caves,
is located 6.5 miles west of Likely,
and 1 mile south of the Ferry Ranch in Modoc County, California. The Infernal
Caverns Battleground is now a California Historic Landmark and includes the
graves of six of the soldiers.
Lava Beds National Monument -
Established as a national monument chiefly for its geological and scientific value, Lava Beds is also significant as the principal battleground of the
Modoc War of 1872-73. In a twisted, almost
impregnable volcanic fortress that came to be known as
Captain Jack's Stronghold, a
handful of Modocs held off a sizable force of U.S.
soldiers for six months. Modoc leader,
Kintpuash know as
Captain Jack, shot and killed General Edward R. S. Canby during a peace conference on April 11, 1873.
Captain Jack ultimately surrendered. He and the chief conspirators of the slaying of Canby were executed.
1 Indian Wells Headquarters
Continued Next Page
Frontier Skirmishes between the Pioneers & the Indians\
Indian Wars of the Frontier West
US Army at Gillems Camp, Lava Beds National Monument,
1873, photo courtesy National Park Service.
<< Previous 1
West Exclusive Products -
Legends of America and our
General Store provide a number of
exclusive products that you won't find anywhere else!
words, and original graphics, you'll find selections for
Old West prints and calendars, and much more. Click
HERE to see the entire line.