Missouri Santa Fe Trail Sites:
Noise and confusion reigned…Traders, trappers, and emigrants filled the streets and stores. All were in a hurry, jostling one another, and impatient to get through with their business. The salesmen were overworked, but good nature aided them in preserving their tempers. Mules and oxen strove for the right of way. ‘Whoa’ and ‘haw’ resounded on every side; while the loud cracking of ox goads, squeaking of wheels and rattling of chains, mingled with the oaths of teamsters, produced a din indescribable.
The Santa Fe Trail was important in the early history of the State of Missouri. Missouri had been a United States territory since 1812 and attained statehood in 1821; therefore, unlike the other four states along the trail, Missouri was already a state when the trail opened. The trail and the trade with Mexico provided a much needed boost to, and continuing support of, the economy of the young state. New settlements were formed and developed as outfitting points for the trail, and existing settlements such as St. Louis expanded and grew wealthy on the profits made from the trade.
The Santa Fe Trail crossed the western portion of Missouri, generally following the Missouri River. In total, as measured from Franklin in the central part of the state, Missouri contained 130 miles of the trail, with no distinction between the Cimarron and Mountain Routes. The Osage Trace, a secondary route of the Santa Fe Trail, ran between the Arrow Rock ferry and Fort Osage. Boone’s Lick Trail connected St. Louis with the Franklin area. Missouri towns, trails, and rivers provided the link between the Santa Fe Trail and the cities, merchants, and ports in the eastern US.
Prior to European incursions and settlement, seven principal Indian tribes resided in what became the State of Missouri. The two tribes claiming the majority of land in the state were the Missouri, located north of the Missouri River, and the Osage, south of the river. Other tribes also present in the state included the Ioway, the Sac and Fox who claimed lands extending a short distance into north central Missouri; the Otoe were found in little more than Atchison County in the extreme northwest corner, and Kanza tribal land crossed the Missouri River into western Missouri north of the confluence of the Kansas and Missouri Rivers (in modern Kansas City).
The land contained within the boundaries of Missouri had, at various times, been claimed by France and Spain. Spanish claims to the Mississippi River Valley stemmed from the 1542 explorations of Hernando de Soto. France laid claim to the Mississippi River Basin in 1682 for King Louis XIV, based on the explorations of Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet in 1673. French Canadian woodsmen and voyageurs traveled wilderness trails and rivers during the 17th and 18th centuries, trading with Indian inhabitants and trapping fur-bearing animals.
The United States acquired Missouri through the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. The newly acquired lands were divided into the Territory of Orleans, which later became the state of Louisiana, and the District of Louisiana, which was initially placed under the jurisdiction of the Territory of Indiana. On March 2, 1805, an act of Congress changed the District of Louisiana to the Territory of Louisiana.
In 1805, St. Louis, an important trading hub, became the seat of government for the new territory encompassing the southern half of the former Louisiana Purchase lands. St. Louis was already a major outpost for the fur trade by the time it became part of the United States. After 1804 the fur trade expanded under US control and settlements began to be established along the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers. On May 14, 1804, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark began their journey of exploration from St. Louis, traveling up the Missouri River and on to the Pacific Ocean. The Lewis and Clark expedition returned to St. Louis September 23, 1806.
In 1807, Daniel Morgan and Nathan Boone began laying out a new trail from the Mississippi River at St. Charles, Missouri west into the interior of the future state. In large part following migratory and Indian trails, the Boone’s Lick Trail extended west to the Boone family’s salt lick (Boone’s Lick), situated between modern day Boonville, Glasgow, and Arrow Rock. From 1807 to 1812 this trail followed a more northerly route at some distance from the Missouri River. Towns along the route included: Warrenton, Danville, Fulton, Columbia, and Franklin (the trail’s end point). The Boone’s Lick Trail helped to open up Boone’s Lick Country in central Missouri for settlement and development. Numerous resources (e.g. salt springs, timber, good soil, plenty of water, and the Missouri River) made this area attractive for settlement. After the War of 1812 the original route of the Boone’s Lick Trail was used more frequently by travelers due to a decrease in Indian attacks. However, Boone’s Lick Trail moved closer to the north bank of the Missouri River in 1822.
In 1808, Fort Osage was established to trade with the Osage Indians, who in September of that year inequitably ceded most of their land in Missouri and Arkansas – some 30 million acres – in return for $1200 worth of presents, an annuity of $500, and services of a blacksmith and grist mill at the fort. Fort Osage was one of 28 government Indian “factories” (trading posts) that operated between 1796 and 1822 as part of the government factory system, which attempted to control trade with the tribes. Under the command of William Clark, US Infantry and Territorial Militia built the post at a strategic location on the Missouri River. Fort Osage became an important location in the fur trade, collecting furs and pelts that were then shipped down the Missouri River to St. Louis. Until it ceased in 1827 to be an active post and military storage facility, Fort Osage also served as a convenient rendezvous for trappers, mountain men, explorers and, later, traders in the early years of the Santa Fe trade. Fort Osage was the site from which the 1825 Sibley Survey of the Santa Fe Trail embarked.
By the Territory of Missouri Act of June 4, 1812, the Territory of Louisiana became the Territory of Missouri to avoid confusion with the newly formed State of Louisiana. Under this Organic Act, Missouri Territory – now minus the state of Louisiana – was divided into five counties, and President James Madison appointed a governor. Benjamin Howard served as the first governor until his resignation in July 1813. At that time William Clark was appointed to the position, which he held until 1821, when Missouri became a state.
On June 18, 1812, the United States declared war on Britain. Hostility toward the British ran hotly in Missouri. The American inhabitants were particularly irate about British traders providing weapons for Indian tribes and inciting the tribes. As a result, many settlers in central Missouri moved east during the war. In the expectation of Indian attacks, Missourians built a series of stockade posts along the Mississippi River frontier. The war between the US and Britain ended on December 24, 1814, with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent. The end of the war and signing of the treaty resulted in a steady decrease in warfare between the British and Americans; however, the US government did not immediately make peace with the Indian nations, so hostilities between Indians and Missourians continued. Not until 1816, after the signing of peace treaties with several tribes, was immigration to Missouri renewed.