The Mormon Trail

 

By Charles Dawson in 1912

 

Mormon Trail Map

Mormon Trail Map

The Mormons used many trails in crossing the Plains and through the Rockies to their haven by the inland salty sea. The States of Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska and Wyoming were gutted and rutted with many different trails of wheel-marks made by their caravans when the first settlers came to present-day Utah.

While several well-defined and traveled trails were in existence leading from the Missouri River through the mountains, the Mormons seemed inclined to make use of different routes that would parallel or intercept the regular trails. Perhaps this was caused largely by the state of feeling that existed between them and the general public.

All histories of the Mormons during these times say that there existed deep hatred, coupled with fear, between them and the Gentiles, that eventually led up to an armed insurrection by the Mormons in 1857, following the “Mountain Meadows Massacre,” which caused the sending of 5,000 soldiers under General Albert Sidney Johnston to Utah in 1857-58, to quell and subjugate them.

All early travelers of the trails were inclined to be just as watchful of the Mormons as they were of the Indians, and perhaps rightly too, for records show that many depredations were committed by them under the guise of Indians.

Nauvoo, Illinois, 1855

Nauvoo, Illinois, 1855

Notwithstanding all the present evidence to the contrary, it is the belief of the author that subsequent investigation will prove that the Mormons traveled in greater numbers south of the Platte River than on the north side. Some 15,000 Mormons wintered at Florence and Council Bluffs the first year of their migration from Nauvoo, Illinois and thousands of them annually traveled across Iowa through these portals over the northern trail up the north valley of the Platte River to their destination.

The Mormon converts from England came mainly by two routes to St. Louis and Independence, Missouri, where they took up their overland journey by wagon to Salt Lake City.

Embarking at the different seaports of England, they took passage on ships that sailed for ports that had rail or steamboat connections to the eastern terminus of some trail that led to their promised land. St. Louis had railroads long before Omaha or Council Bluffs, and they could proceed by steamboat from this point up to Independence by a regular and well-established services. However, proceeding to points on up the river, presented many difficulties. At this time Independence was the greatest outfitting point on the Missouri River, so it was naturally the best point for the Mormons to launch forth. Later on, the railroads reached St. Joseph, Missouri and Atchison, Kansas. These in turn became the ends of the railroad journey for the Mormon pilgrims from England. Thus, by the way of New Orleans up the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers by boat to Independence, Atchison, and St. Joseph, and by train from New York to these points, thousands of Mormons annually arrived and departed overland westward after 1846. To this, was added the great migration of Missouri Mormons.

The first groups of Mormons were the ones that cut the many trails across the plains, while the Mormons of the late 1860’s seemed content to use the regular trails. It is difficult to determine what trail or route was the real Mormon Trail across the plains, as they used so many branches and different routes as far out as the mountains, where most of them converged into the Oregon Trail.

Quite a few of them continued down the Santa Fe Trail, finally pointing to the north in New Mexico. Even all of those who went by the way of Omaha did not follow the old California Trail up the north side of the Platte River. Many thousands of them kept to the north of the Elkhorn or Loups Rivers, and finally converged into the Oregon Trail somewhere in Wyoming, and many of them went up on the south banks of the Platte River, striking the Oregon Trail near Fort Kearny.

Fort Kearny, Nebraska

Fort Kearny, Nebraska

The Mormon Trails of northern Kansas and southern Nebraska started from the following points mainly: Independence and St. Joseph, Missouri; Leavenworth and Atchison, Kansas, and quite a number crossed the Missouri River at Brownsville and Nebraska City.

To outline and find their many trails, is to follow the most direct and best routes to a common point on the Platte River near the site of Fort Kearny. Thus, those that diverged northward from the Santa Fe Trail after passing the point where the Oregon Traill diverged to cross the Kansas River near the present city of Topeka, traveled on down to a point a few miles south of the present town of Eskridge, in Wabaunsee County, where they turned to the northwest, passing through Wabaunsee County into Geary County, reaching the Kansas River at a point about half-way between the present Fort Riley and Junction City, Kansas.

There, they crossed the stream and bore to the north, passing near the present town of Ogden; then north to the Big Blue River, following up the west side of this stream past Garrison’s Crossing and Randolph, crossing Fancy Creek near the latter place. Then, they went northward across the prairies to the Little Blue River, near the present site of Waterville, and joined with another branch that had left the old Oregon Trail somewhere in the northeast corner of Pottawatomie County after crossing Vermillion Creek, and had borne almost directly west to the junction of the Blue River, crossing below and going northwest past Waterville into Washington County, towards its northwest corner. On Ash Creek, about three miles south of the present-day town of Washington, was a spring near by a high sand-rock wall, upon which many of the Mormons carved their names. This was called “Mormon Springs” by the early pioneers.

Wagon Train in Utah

Wagon Train in Utah

This trail entered Nebraska about three miles east of the southwest corner of Jefferson County, and followed a ridge down to Rose Creek Valley, where they built a crude log bridge across this stream, about half a mile below the present town of Reynolds. The early settlers of Rose Creek Valley found the pilings of this bridge still in position when they came in 1862, and they used this trail in going to Waterville, Blue Rapids and points on the Missouri River for supplies.

Old settlers also allege that the Mormons sometimes crossed the Kansas River near Manhattan, and struck this trail near Waterville; also that there was another Mormon Trail, that followed up the Republican River on the north side from their upper crossing at Junction City or “Whisky Point” past the present towns of Clay Center, Clyde, Scandia, and Republic City, leaving the stream when it bent to the west in the State of Nebraska, going northward across the prairies of Nuckolls County to the Little Blue river, in Adams County, where it converged with the old Oregon Trail.

The main branch, after crossing Rose Creek, kept on to the north and west, entering Thayer County, joining the old Oregon Trail in the vicinity of Hebron, on the Little Blue River.

The Mormons from Atchison, Kansas and St. Joseph, Missouri in the later days, generally used the regular trails from these points connecting with the old Oregon Trail. A few miles out from the present-day city of Atchison was a camping place of popular use called “The Mormon Grove.” During the 1850’s and 60’s thousands of Mormons paused for a brief rest before starting on their trip across what was then known as the “Great American Desert,” now as the “Kingdoms of Alfalfa and Agriculture” — Kansas and Nebraska.

The few Mormons that crossed the Missouri River at Brownville and Nebraska City followed the trails that other travelers had established over the prairies, the lower one joining the Oregon Trail, on the Big Sandy River, in Jefferson County, and the Nebraska City Trail joining it a few miles east of Fort Kearny. While these  Mormon Trails have not been definitely located, the above is probably correct enough for the purposes of need for the recording of their existence. To accurately trace them would be a stupendous task, perhaps impossible, for nearly all of the rutted and scarred evidences of their travel have been effaced by nature and agriculture, and only here and there, can be found some unmistakable old-time road descending or ascending some hill, pasture, or meadow lands, that have not been disturbed by the plow.

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