By Kathleen Walls
Say “outlaw” and “James” in the same sentence and everyone responds “Jesse James.” It’s almost as if by dying as a outlaw in the nineteenth century Jesse has far overshadowed his older brother who died a law-abiding entrepreneur in the twentieth century.
Alexander Franklin “Frank” James and Jesse’s path paralleled until Jesse’s death. Jesse died the demi-god of paperback novelist and later Hollywood movie moguls, dreams. He was a Confederate soldier, while still in his teens, who rode with one of the most infamous guerilla fighters of all time, William Clarke Quantrill. He refused to surrender and became a outlaw who regardless of facts to the contrary, was considered a Robin Hood type folk hero. The image was largely due to John Newman Edwards, an ex-Confederate major and newspaper editor.
Frank was born on the family farm near Kearney, Missouri on January 10, 1843. He was studious and wanted to become a teacher. The turbulent times interfered with his choice of a career and sent him hurtling down a different path. Frank had a profound love of Shakespeare and carried copies of the bard’s plays in his saddlebags while being pursued by Union soldiers and later law officers. At eighteen he joined General Sterling Price and fought at the battle of Wilson’s Creek. Price, as commander of the Missouri State Guard, and aided by Confederate General Benjamin McCulloch, was attempting to uphold Missouri’s right to remain neutral. Frank followed Price as far as Springfield where he became ill and was left behind when Price, even though he had won the victory at Lexington, abandoned the entire area to Union forces. Frank was captured and forced to take an oath of loyalty to the United States.
Years later when Frank visited Springfield as official starter for the horse races at the annual Ozarks Empire Fair he granted an interview to a local reporter. It appeared in the Springfield (Missouri) Republican, September 27, 1898.
“How well I remember that old court house,” Frank said, “and good cause I have to remember it. In 1862 I was a regular enlisted with General Price in the Confederate army and was with him in Springfield. I took sick with pneumonia while in this city and was placed in that old court house. Price retreated and Curtis, the Yankee general took possession of the town. As the Yankees marched by the court house twelve abreast, I looked out of the window and thought I would not have any comrades soon, as there enough Yankees in Curtis’ army to kill every rebel in the south. In six weeks time I was able to be about but was a prisoner and could not leave the court house. I then commenced to plan how to escape and one night managed to slip through the rear of the building (the jail part) and crawled out a window into the alley where I found a Yankee officer’s horse which I mounted.
“I wanted to join my regiment but was cut off from Price and knew that the chances were greatly against me if I attempted to get past the Yankees who were between me and Price, so I started north and one evening rode into Quantrill’s camp on this side of the Missouri River. I remained with Quantrill for some time and finally became one of his regulars. I stayed with him [article illegible] I consider Quantrill the greatest guerrilla leader. I fought the Yankees four year and the whole world fifteen years. I surrendered to Governor Crittenden in 1882 and was glad to lay down my guns.”
Jesse followed his brother’s footsteps and joined Quantrill’s Partisan Rangers in 1863 at the age of sixteen.
Quantrill’s men occasionally rode with the regular Confederate army and it was during on of these occasions that Frank acquired a lifelong friend and benefactor. On December 7, 1862, at the Battle of Prairie Grove, Arkansas, General Joseph Shelby was on the verge of being captured or shot by a Union officer when Frank came to his aid. Later Shelby would repay the favor and prove to be one of the best friends Frank had.
Frank followed Quantrill into Kentucky in the waning days of the Confederacy and was nearby at Judge Alex Sayers’ home on May 10, 1865 when Quantrill was fatally wounded in a shootout at James Wakefield’s farm. The following morning, Frank along with another Ranger, Donnie Pence, returned to the farm to see if Quantrill, who had been left at the farm after giving his word not to escape, wanted to make a run for it. Quantrill, who was now paralyzed from the waist down, refused and remained to await his fate. Frank surrendered July 26, 1865 at Samuel’s Depot in Nelson County Kentucky.
After the war’s end, Frank joined his brother, Jesse, the Younger brothers and some others and began a lucrative career of robbing banks and trains.
These men were not the foul-mouthed, desperados often portrayed in movies but educated gentlemen who could blend into polite society. During their criminal years, they lived well and traveled extensively.
Both Frank and Jesse learned how important a good horse could be during their guerilla days. A fast, smart horse meant the difference between life and death. Both brothers were often involved with horses in Tennessee and Kentucky and financed their expensive horses with bank and train robberies. The crimes were not limited to Missouri. Their criminal trail spread from Mississippi to Minnesota.
Frank’s earliest robbery was successfully pulled off without Jesse. On Feb 13, 1866, Frank, Cole Younger and approximately a dozen other men, most veterans of Quantrill’s raiders, robbed the bank at Liberty, Missouri of money belonging to the government. One citizen, George Wymore, was killed in the course of the robbery. Jesse was still recovering from a gunshot wound received in Lexington, Missouri where he had tried to surrender.
The James-Younger Gang did so well robbing banks that they branched out to train robberies. On July 21, 1873, they robbed the Chicago, Rock Island, and Pacific Railroad at Adair, Iowa. The engineer was killed when the train was derailed.
Frank found time for romance. On June 6, 1874, he eloped with twenty-two year old Annie Ralston. Annie was the daughter of a well-to-do family in Independence, Missouri and was unusually well-educated for her time, holding a college degree in both science and literature. She told her family she was going to visit family members and then disappeared on a westbound train with Frank.
Marriage did not turn Frank away from his chosen lifestyle. The ill-fated robbery of the First National Bank of Northfield, Minnesota on Sept. 7, 1876, may have been the start of that. This was a robbery that Frank, Cole Younger and other gang members had argued against as being too risky. Jesse James, Bob Younger, and Bill Chadwell were the instigators. The rest of the gang eventually agreed to do it; Frank, Cole and Jim Younger probably to protect their younger brothers.
They picked the target carefully but panicked when nothing went their way. At the bank, the cashier, Joseph Lee Heywood, refused to open the safe in spite of being pistol whipped. They eventually cracked the safe only to discover it held $28, and when they ran from the bank, it must have looked like the entire town stood against them. Two gang members, Bill Chadwell and Clell Miller, and a bystander, Nicholas Gustavso, were killed by the crossfire. Frank, along with all three Younger brothers, was wounded.
Sloshing through the deluge with a posse of about 1,100 men pressing them hard, they decided to split up. Frank and Jesse headed west into Dakota Territory, and the Youngers and Charlie Pitts took a different trail. Frank and Jesse finally made their way into Garretson. There, according to Mark Williamson, a volunteer at Devil’s Gulch, Jesse made his famed twenty foot jump across the gorge and galloped to safety. Frank is never mentioned in this bit of folklore but according to Bruce Rekstad, who operates the Jesse James Pontoon Ride down the Split River, “Jesse was hiding out in a cave high above the river while Frank was being treated for his wounded leg in Sioux Falls.” According to Rekstad, “There was a farm family who lived nearby at that time who said Jesse walked the bluff and asked for food and this (pointing to the cave) is where he walked back to.”
After this both Frank and Jesse laid low for about three years. Frank and Annie were living on Josiah Walton’s farm near Nashville, Tennessee. Anne gave birth to their only child, Robert Franklin James, on Feb. 6, 1878. Frank appeared to be satisfied with the straight life but Jesse was not. He visited Frank at the farm where he was living and enticed him back into the outlaw life again.