Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument, New Mexico

Mission San Gregorio de Abo ruins by the National Park Service

Mission San Gregorio de Abo ruins by the National Park Service.

In central New Mexico, the Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument protects the sites of three Pueblos and the ruins of three Spanish missions near Mountainair, New Mexico. The site protects the remains of the San Buenaventura and San Isidro churches at Gran Quivira, the Mission of San Gregorio at Abo, and the Quarai Church at the Pueblo of Quarai.

Over 2,000 years ago, the ancestors of the Pueblo peoples, the Anasazi and Mogollon Indians, settled in the present-day area of Mountainair, New Mexico. Here, the traditions of both cultures overlapped to develop the unique Tiwa and Tompiro-speaking pueblos of Abó, Gran Quivira, and Quarai. These ancient peoples borrowed from each other and adapted to the changes in their environment by creating new traditions that helped them survive. The adaptability of the Pueblo Indians proved useful centuries later when the Spanish entered their world.

Coronado's March by Frederic Remington, 1897

Coronado’s March by Frederic Remington, 1897.

Spanish explorers first learned of the existence of the Pueblo communities in 1540, when Francisco Vasquez de Coronado led an expedition to New Mexico in search of the seven cities of gold. In his travels, he encountered a Plains Indian he called the Turk, who informed him of the existence of the wealthy city of Quivira. Coronado and his men followed the Indian to the city, but to their displeasure, the Spanish learned that the Turk had tricked them and that the city did not exist. After Coronado ordered the Plains Indian killed, the Spanish ended their expedition to find Cibola and returned to Mexico. Although they returned empty-handed, Coronado’s expedition did not discourage other explorers from returning to the region. In 1598, Juan de Oñate led a party of Spanish missionaries and settlers back to New Mexico. In their travels, they discovered the resourceful Pueblo communities of Abó, Quarai, and Gran Quivira, where Oñate established a permanent colony for New Spain that he called Sal — the Spanish word for salt — which was abundant throughout the Salinas Valley.

Pueblo Women Bringing in the Harvest by Edward S. Curtis, 1905.

Pueblo Women Bringing in the Harvest by Edward S. Curtis, 1905.

By this time, the descendants of the Anasazi and Mogollon Indians had already evolved into one of the most advanced and economically powerful cultures in the American Southwest. The Pueblo Indians, who had perfected their craft-making and agricultural and hunting techniques, commanded the Indian trade paths with their abundance of goods. Because of their superior architectural skills, their impressive stone and adobe homes dominated the southwestern landscape. The Spanish found the Pueblo pottery, farming, and building techniques impressive. Recognizing the value of the American Indians’ skilled labor, they developed the encomienda system, which eventually led to exploiting the Pueblo people. Through the encomienda, the governor appointed ranking Spanish citizens to protect, educate, and civilize a group of Indians. In return, the Spanish collected tribute through labor, food, and material goods. Eventually, the Spanish began abusing the system, and tensions grew as Franciscan friars attempted to help the Pueblo people. However, the church was powerless against the government, and the lucrative system continued.

Franciscan Friar

Franciscan Friar.

The encomienda was not the only system that created tension in the Salinas Valley; conflict also grew from the religious pressure Franciscan friars placed on the American Indians. The clash of religions made it difficult for the missionaries to convert Pueblo peoples, who were unwilling to give up sacred customs, which the Indians believed brought good fortune to their communities.  The most important of these customs was the Kachina dance that the Pueblo peoples performed to bring rain, health, and abundant crops to their gods. The Franciscans attempted to stop the Pueblo people from performing these customs by informing the Indians that their people’s salvation depended on their conversion to Christianity. The Franciscans also established three mission churches, one at each of the pueblos in the Salinas Valley, where they added to the existing adobe structures the Pueblo peoples built before the coming of the Spanish.

In 1621, Fray Francisco Fonte arrived in New Mexico and soon began establishing his mission in the Pueblo of Abó. Initially, Friar Fonte converted the adobe buildings of the Pueblo peoples into temporary convents, where he slowly introduced the Indians to Christian traditions. Once the Pueblo residents trusted him, Fray Fonte began building the first mission church at Abó. By 1627, the Church of San Gregorio was finished. Around the same time, Fray Juan Gutierrez de la Chica, who headed the mission efforts in the Pueblo of Quarai, began building the church and convento of La Purísima Concepción de Quarai. Two years later, Fray Francisco Letrado arrived at his assignment in Gran Quivira, also known as Las Humanas, where he constructed the churches of San Isidro and San Buenaventura.

Quarai Church, New Mexico by the National Park Service

Quarai Church, New Mexico, by the National Park Service.

The Abó, Quarai, and Gran Quivira missions proved successful until Spanish officials began dictating how church figures should convert the American Indians. They complained that the Pueblo people spent more time studying Christianity than providing labor and began pressuring the Franciscan Friars to accelerate the conversion process. Although the missionaries wished to influence the American Indians gradually to give up their old religious traditions, they were less powerful than government forces. Eventually, this conflict between church and state led the Franciscan friars to destroy the Kachina masks and burn all kivas — sacred places where Pueblo peoples performed rituals and prayed to their gods. Ultimately, attempts to suppress the Pueblo peoples’ ancient religious beliefs failed.

Although the Pueblo Indians were adaptable people who could withstand environmental and social changes, what the Spanish brought, especially disease proved too strong for them. As drought, epidemics, and natural disasters began to decimate the population of the Salinas Valley, the Pueblo people felt they had insulted the spirits. When the Christian God failed to help the community, they returned to their old beliefs. As each Salinas pueblo fell victim to epidemics, the surviving Pueblo peoples began to leave the region and seek refuge with their kinfolk in neighboring towns. By 1672, the once-thriving community of 10,000 inhabitants was reduced to 500 people. By 1678, the Spanish and Pueblo peoples completely abandoned the Salinas Valley.

Gran Quivira Kivas, New Mexico by the National Park Service

Gran Quivira Kivas, New Mexico, by the National Park Service.

The area was first proclaimed Gran Quivira National Monument on November 1, 1909, and was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in October 1966. It was enlarged on December 19, 1980, and two of the New Mexico State Monuments of Abó and Quarai were absorbed into it in November 1981. It was renamed on October 28, 1988.

Today, Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument preserves the history and heritage of the Pueblo societies and Spanish missions of Abó, Gran Quivira, and Quarai, which continue to stand as reminders of a time when the cultures of the American Indians and the Spanish converged.

The Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument is ten miles west of Mountainair, New Mexico, off Route 60. The main visitor center is located on the corner of Ripley and Broadway Streets in Mountainair. Admission is free at all times.

The Quarai Ruins are located about eight miles north of Mountainair. There is a visitor center and a half-mile trail through the ruins. The Gran Quivira Ruins are located about 25 miles south of Mountainair. There is a small visitor center near the parking lot, and a half-mile trail leads through partially excavated pueblo ruins and the ruins of the uncompleted mission church. The Abó pueblo ruins are located about nine miles west of Mountainair.