Lincoln County Regulators (1878) – Made up of a group of young men ranging from 14 to 30 years old, the Lincoln County, New Mexico Regulators began as a deputized posse seeking revenge for the death of their boss and friend, John Tunstall. Formed just days after Tunstall was ambushed and killed by Lincoln County Sheriff William Brady and his posse on February 18, 1878, the incident and subsequent formation of the Regulators started the Lincoln County War. The group was formed by Alexander McSween, Tunstall’s lawyer and friend who rounded up several men who had been employed by Tunstall, including Dick Brewer, John Middleton, Henry Newton Brown, Fred Waite, and Billy the Kid. Legally deputized by Justice of the Peace John Wilson, the group was initially formed for the purpose of serving warrants that were issued for Tunstall’s murderers. For the next five months the violence would escalate and a number of men would join the Regulators including Charlie Bowdre, Henry Newton Brown, Jose Chavez y Chavez, George and Frank Coe, Tom O’Folliard, Jim French, William McCloskey, Frank MacNab, Vicente Romero, Yginio Salazar, Josiah Gordon “Doc” Scurlock, Francisco Zamora, John Scroggins, “Tiger Sam” Smith, and “Dirty Steve” Stephens.
Richard M. ‘Dick’ Brewer was the group’s first leader until he was killed by Andrew “Buckshot” Roberts at Blazer’s Mill on April 4, 1878. Frank MacNab then took command, but would also die less than a month later at the hands of a posse made up of the combined forces of the Jessie Evans Gang and Seven Rivers Warriors at the Fritz Ranch on April 29th. Josiah Gordon “Doc” Scurlock then took the lead.
The violence of the Lincoln County War continued to rage until finally in September, 1878, President Rutherford B. Hayes removed New Mexico’s corrupt Governor Axtell from office and appointed Lew Wallace as New Mexico’s new governor. At first, Governor Wallace felt that conditions in Lincoln County might call for martial law. The President, however, advised lawbreakers to return to peace. On November 13,1878, Governor Wallace proclaimed an amnesty for all those involved in the Lincoln County War if they were not already under indictment. This proclamation; however, did not include Billy the Kid. Officially, this ended the Lincoln County War, but, not before nineteen people had been killed in the conflict.