Located just a few miles west of the present-day semi-ghost town of Fulton, Kansas, Fort Lincoln was established by Union General James H. Lane in the summer of 1861. The post was located on the north side of the Osage River and consisted of a stockade and a large blockhouse. Primarily used to house Confederate prisoners, it also served as part of a border defense system of Fort Scott during the Civil War, protecting Kansas residents against attacks from Confederate forces. Later, the post’s name was changed to Fort Osaga, then to Fort Fulton.
After the Battle of Drywood Creek, across the border in Vernon County, Missouri, which occurred on September 2, 1861, Lane believed that the Confederates would attack Fort Scott the next day. He ordered the town of Fulton evacuated and the citizens and troops to fall back to Fort Lincoln. However, the attack didn’t happen, and the citizens soon returned to their homes. The post was garrisoned troops under Lane’s command until January 1864. Later the buildings were moved to Fort Scott.
Fort Lincoln was located about 12 miles north of the city of Fort Scott, and just a few miles west of Fulton.