Legends Of America
Since 2003
LEGENDS OF AMERICA
 
 

Washington State FlagWASHINGTON STATE LEGENDS

Indian Wars of the Evergreen State

Bookmark and Share

<<  Previous  1 2 3 4 5 6  Next  >>

 

Warrior of a Washington tribeWashington Battles, Incidents, & Massacres (By Date)

Cayuse War (1847-1855)

Whitman Massacre (November 29, 1847)

Response to Whitman Massacre (Dec, 1847-Jan,1848)

Battle of Sand Hollows (February 24, 1848)

Battle at the Touchet River (March 14, 1848)

Army Campaign Ends (May-June, 1848)

Whitman Murderers Hanged (June 3, 1850)

Yakima War (1855-1858)

Toppenish Creek (October 6-8, 1855)

Puget Sound War (October, 1855-1856)

Militiamen Killed (October, 1855)

White River Massacre (October 28, 1855)

White River/Puyallup River (November 4-7, 1855)

Battle of Union Gap, aka: Twin Buttes (November 9-10, 1855)

Saint Joseph's Mission at Ahtanum Creek (November 15, 1855)

Brennan's Prairie (December 4, 1855)

Battle of Walla Walla (December 7-10, 1855)

Battle of Seattle (January 26, 1856)

Muckleshoot Prairie (March 1, 1856)

Connell's Prairie (March 10, 1856)

Tasawicks Village (March 13, 1856)

Cascades Massacre  (March 26-28, 1856)

Mashel Massacre (Late March 1856)

Satus Creek (April 10, 1856)

Second Walla Walla Council (September 8-18, 1856)

Chief Leschi Captured (November 14, 1856)

Battle of Port Gamble (November 20-21, 1856)

Colonel Isaac Ebey Killed (August 11, 1857)

Coeur d'Alene War (1858)

Four Lakes Battlefield (September 1, 1858)

 

Tribes Involved

Cayuse

Nez Perce

Umatilla

Walla Walla

Yakama

 

 

The time has arrived when it becomes necessary to determine

 the question of peace or war between the citizens of the

United States and Indian tribes on this frontier.


-- Major Gabriel J. Rains, Commander of  Fort Dalles,

Oregon, January 29, 1854

 

 

 

 

 

The Territory of Washington was an organized from a portion of Oregon Territory on February 8, 1853. Less than a month later, Isaac Stevens, a military officer and firm supporter of Franklin Pierce's candidacy for President in 1852, was appointed as the new territory's first governor on March 2, 1853. Stevens assumed his duties, which also included acting as Superintendent of Indian Affairs, later that year in November.

 

Washington Territory, 1860By 1855, there was an insatiable demand for land and resources by new white settlers and Stevens began to heavily pressure the Yakama and other tribes to sign treaties. On June 9, 1855, the Yakama, Umatilla, Cayuse, and Walla Walla tribes signed the treaties, which ceded in excess of six million acres to the United States government, in exchange for $200,000. Initially, Yakama Chief Kamiakin refused to sign the treaty, but, later did so under duress. However, the Yakama tribe, who ceded 10,828,800 acres to the U.S. government, reserved their right to fish, hunt and gather within the ceded area.

 

Walla Walla Chief Peopeomoxmox won a separate reservation for the Walla Walla, Cayuse, and Umatilla. Originally, the documents also ordered the Nez Perce to move to Oregon's Umatilla Reservation with the Walla Walla, Cayuse, and Umatilla tribes. However, all the tribes so opposed this plan that Territorial Governor Isaac Stevens granted the Nez Perce the right to remain in their own territory, on the condition that they relinquish nearly 13 million acres to the U.S. government. 

 

The tribes and bands also agreed to move to the new reservations and receive federal benefits. However, at the time the treaty was signed, Governor Stevens assured the Indians that white miners and settlers would not be allowed to trespass on tribal lands during the time before the treaty could be ratified by the United States Senate and, the treaties stipulated the tribes and bands had two years to relocate to their new reservations.

 

However, like so many other treaties which were enacted in the American West, Governor Stevens didn't keep his word and threw open the Indian lands for white settlers less than two weeks after the treaty was signed. The Oregon Weekly Times, just twelve days after the Walla Walla treaties were signed, ran an inexcusable article that read, in part: By an express provision of the treaty, the country embraced in these cessions and not included in the reservation is open to settlement, excepting that the Indians are secured in the possession of their buildings and implements till removal to the reservation.

Yakama Chief KamiakinYakama Chief Kamiakin then called upon the tribes to oppose the declaration. Some of the tribes joined forces under Kamiakin and other tribes rose up as well, resulting in the Yakima War

The three treaties signed by Washington tribes resulting in in the Yakama, Nez Perce, and Umatilla reservations were not ratified by Congress until 1859.

(The official spelling of the Yakama was changed by the tribe in 1994 from Yakima to Yakama  to reflect the native pronunciation.)

 

Continued Next Page

 

ALSO SEE:

 

Frontier Skirmishes between the Pioneers & the Indians

Indian Campaigns by the US Army

Indian Fighters

Indian Wars of the Frontier West by Emerson Hough

 

<<  Previous  1 2 3 4 5 6  Next  >>

 From Legends' General Store

The Great Indian Wars: 1540 to 1890

Great Indian Wars (1540 to 1890) DVD - The year 1540 was a crucial turning point in American History. The Great Indian Wars were incited by Francisco Vazquez de Coronado when his expedition to the Great Plains  launched the inevitable 350-year struggle between the white man and the American Indians. From that point forward, the series of battles between the military and civilian forces of the United States and the native American Indians began when blood was shed and ultimately tens of thousands of lives were lost on both sides. The Battle of Tippicanoe, the Battle of Horseshoe Band, all three Seminole Wars and the Battle of Little Big Horn were some of the most important conflicts that led up to the last massacre, the Battle of Wounded Knee, where America's landscape would be forever changed!  Brought to you by the award-winning production company Centre Communications, this series is truly one of a kind and is sure to satisfy history buffs and documentary enthusiasts. This DVD set also includes bonus features containing biographies, timelines, rare photographs and maps!

 

$9.95   Buy Product

 

  About Us      Contact Us       Article/Photo Use      Links     Site Map     Writing Credits      Copyright 2003-Present, www.Legends of America.com