“To enjoy such a trip … a man must be able to endure heat like a Salamander, mud and water like a muskrat, dust like a toad, and labor like a jackass. He must learn to eat with his unwashed fingers, drink out of the same vessel as his mules, sleep on the ground when it rains, share his blanket with vermin, and have patience with mosquitos. He must cease to think, except of where he may find grass and water and a good camping place. It is hardship without glory.” — Anonymous Settler writing in the St. Joseph, Missouri Gazette
Though 19th-century settlers, as well as much of written history, looks at the 2,000-mile Oregon Trail as romantic, almost one in ten who embarked on the trail didn’t survive. In fact, the Oregon Trail is this nation’s longest graveyard. Of the estimated 350,000 who started the journey, the trail claimed as many as 30,000 victims or an average of 10-15 deaths per mile.
The main causes of deaths along the Oregon/California Trail during 1841 to 1869 were disease, accidents, and weather.
“We did not meet any sickness nor see any fresh graves until we came in on the road from St Joseph. From that out, there was scarcely a day but we met six and not less than two fresh graves.” – Elizabeth Keegan, 18
The number one killer on the Oregon Trail, by a wide margin, was disease and serious illnesses, which caused the deaths of nine out of ten pioneers who contracted them. The hardships of weather, limited diet, and exhaustion made travelers very vulnerable to infectious diseases such as cholera, flu, dysentery, measles, mumps, tuberculosis, and typhoid fever which could spread quickly through an entire wagon camp.
Opportunities for sanitation — bathing and laundering — were severely limited, and safe drinking water frequently was not available in sufficient quantities. Human and animal waste, garbage, and animal carcasses were often in close proximity to available water supplies.
As a result, cholera, spread by contaminated water, was responsible for the most deaths overall on the Oregon Trail. Cholera could attack a perfectly healthy person after breakfast and he would be in his grave by noon. With no cure or treatment for the disease, the infected emigrant usually died within 24 hours or less. However, many would linger in misery for weeks in the bouncy wagons. In a bad year, some wagon trains lost two-thirds of their people to the deadly disease.
Food poisoning was was often a problem with contaminated food, more likely among single men. Scurvy, caused by a lack of vitamin C was also a problem. Poisoning from drinking water that was too alkaline was also common.
There was a high incidence of childbirth on the trail and tragedy often came with the arrival of a baby. Death during childbirth was common and infant mortality was high. Poor nutrition, lack of medical care and poor sanitation caused many of these deaths.
“One woman and two men lay dead on the grass and some more ready to die. Women and children crying, some hunting medicine and none to be found. With heartfelt sorrow, we looked around for some time until I felt unwell myself. Got up and moved forward one mile, so as to be out of hearing of crying and suffering.” – Emigrant John Clark
Throughout the trail’s existence, numerous accidents were caused by negligence, exhaustion, guns, and animals.
Wagon accidents were the most common, with both children and adults sometimes falling off or under wagons and being crushed under the wheels.
“A little boy fell over the front end of the wagon during our journey. In his case, the great wheels rolled over the child’s head—-crushing it to pieces.” — Edward Lenox
Crossing rivers was one of the most dangerous things that pioneers were required to do. Swollen rivers could tip over a wagon and drown both people and oxen and valuable supplies, goods, and equipment could be lost. Sometimes this was caused by animals panicking when wading through deep, swift water. Hundreds drowned trying to cross the Kansas, North Platte and Columbia Rivers–among others. In 1850 alone, 37 people drowned trying to cross one particularly difficult Green River.
Those who didn’t drown were usually fleeced by a ferryman. The charge ranged up to 16 dollars; almost the price of an oxen. One ferry earned $65,000 in just one summer. The emigrants complained bitterly.
“The ferryman allowed too many passengers to get in the boat, and the water came within two inches of the gunwale. He ordered every man to stand steady as the boat was liable to swamp. When we were nearly across the edge of the boat dipped; I thought the boat would be swamped instantly and drowned the last one of us.” — Emigrant John B. Hill
Over time, this risk would be reduced as bridges and ferries became available. Even then, there were stories of rafts pitching over and improvised bridges collapsing throwing people to their deaths.
Sometimes, alcohol played a part. On one occasion, on June 2, 1853, an inebriated emigrant, misjudged the rain-swollen Buffalo Creek, drove his wagon in, and was never seen again.