- A Siouan tribe, closely related to the Kanza, Omaha, Osage, and
Ponca, their name translates to "Downstream People," so called from a
tradition that they went down the Missouri River while the rest of the
Sioux went upriver. The Quapaw people historically resided on the west
side of the Mississippi River in what is now the state of
They are identical with the Arkansa Nation. When they were
encountered by the DeSoto expedition (1539-43), they were living in a
fortified, walled city. In the larger villages, well crafted lodges were
seen with most people living in long houses with domed roofs covered in
bark. They practiced extensive agriculture, and in art, they were
particularly noted for their pottery designs. Ironically, the Quapaw and French had an amicable
relationship, for the French were usually at war with most other native
tribes. In 1833, the Quapaw signed were forced out of
Oklahoma where they remain today.
- A Chimakuan tribe who lived on the coast of Washington. There was
formerly an eastern division of the family, the Chimakum, who occupied the
territory between Hood's Canal and Port Townsend, which is now extinct. In
customs, the Quilente resembled the Makah and Nootka; all were whalers.
The language is now severely endangered. It is spoken by a few people
south of the Makah on the western coast of the Olympic Peninsula south of
Quinault - One
of the few Indian
tribes that continue to live upon their native lands,
the Quinault are located on the Pacific coast of
primarily in northwestern Grays Harbor County. Like many Northwest Coast
Quinault relied on fishing from local rivers and the Pacific Ocean, hunting,
and berry picking for food. The lived in long wooden houses situated up
and down the Quinault River and also used the forest trees for making
canoes and bark for clothing. The tribe remained isolated from white
settlers until they were first visited by a Spanish vessel in 1775.
Lewis and Clark
also came in contact with them during their famed expedition in 1803. By
the 1820s, more and more white trappers, traders and settlers began to
visit and make their homes in the area and before long, fishing and lumber
communities dotted the region. The the Quinault were initially friendly,
friction began to occur as the new settlers heavily utilized the area
resources. In January, 1856, a treaty was signed to create a 10,000 acre
reservation that included not only the Quinault but other area
including the Quileute, Queets, and Hoh. Wanting to
accommodate more coastal tribes, including the
Chehalis, Chinook, and Cowlitz, the government expanded the reservation
by some 200,000 acres in 1873.
Today, the Quinault Indian Nation accommodates
about 1,400 residents, operates a casino and seaside resort at Ocean
Shores and a high-quality seafood packing business at Taholah, Washington.
- In 1607, the Rappahannock were the dominant
tribe of the Rappahannock River valley, maintaining thirteen villages
along the north and south banks of the river that bears their name. The
Rappahannock People first met Captain John
Smith at their capital town "Topahanocke"
on the banks of the river bearing their name, in December 1607.
In an effort to solidify their tribal government in order to fight the
state for their recognition, the Rappahannocks incorporated in 1921.In 1998, they elected the first woman chief to lead in
Virginia since the
1700s, Chief G. Anne Richardson.
Currently, the tribe is working on acquiring Federal Recognition, with six
other Virginia tribes.
Ree - See
Rogue River - A Native American
group originally located in southern
Oregon. This was not a single tribe,
but rather group of tribes that French Canadian employees of the Hudson
Bay Company called "coquins," meaning "rogues." The principal
commonly grouped under the generic name of Rogue River Indians were the
Takelma, Shasta and different subtribes of the Coquille. After the Rogue
River Wars in 1856, bands of the Rogue River were split between the
Confederated Tribes of Siletz and the Confederated Tribes of the Grand
Ronde Community of Oregon, relocating to either the Siletz Indian
Reservation north of the tribe's traditional lands or to the Grand Ronde