War - This war occurred when the US army responded to some
American deaths along the Salmon River, said to have been committed
Nez Perce. To avoid a battle that would have resulted in being
forced onto a reservation, about 800
fled 1,500 miles. They were caught 30 miles south of the Canadian
border. Survivors were sent to
despite the promise of the US government to allow them to return to
Standing Bear, a
refused to move to a reservation because it was within lands already
given to the
The U.S. Government seized the
Sioux in violation of a treaty.
John D. Lee was brought to trial for
his part in the
Fancher Party Massacre of 1857. He was
convicted by an all
jury. On March 23 he was executed by firing squad at the site of the
massacre, after denouncing
Young for abandoning him. His last words are for his executioners:
"Center my heart, boys. Don't mangle my body."
Sitting Bull escapes to Canada
with about 300 followers.
General George Crook at
Nebraska on May 6, having
received assurances that he and his followers will be permitted to
settle in the Powder River country of
Defiant even in defeat,
Horse arrived with a band of 800 warriors, all brandishing
weapons and chanting songs of war.
A small band of
is defeated by
General Nelson A. Miles, thus
ending the Great
Ponca arrived at the Otto
reservation. They were forcibly marched from their old reservation
The Otto took pity on the
Ponca and gave them some horses to help
carry their people.
By late summer,
there were rumors that
Horse was planning a return
to battle, and on September 5 he was arrested and brought back to
Fort Robinson, where, when he resisted being jailed, he was held by
Indian guard and killed by a bayonet thrust from a soldier on
September 6. He was 36.
Congress passed the
Manypenny Agreement, a law taking the
Sioux rights outside the Great
land - 134 million acres guaranteed by treaty in 1868 was reduced to
less than 15 million acres.
Chief Joseph surrendered
his rifle at Eagle Creek in the Bear Paw Mountains in
after months in which his starving band eluded pursuing federal
troops: "From where the sun now stands, I will fight no more
Buffalo have disappeared and
Lakota now live on handouts from the Federal Government.
escape from their reservation in
in an attempt to reach their lands in
A Commission finds
Bureau permeated with "cupidity,
inefficiency, and the most barefaced dishonesty." The department's
affairs were "a reproach to the whole nation." Carl Schurz had
already dismissed the Commissioner of
Indian Affairs, John Q. Smith on September 27, 1877. He now
discharged many more Bureau employees and began a reorganization of
The first students, a group of 84
Lakota children, arrived at the newly established United States
Indian Training and Industrial School at Carlisle, Pennsylvania,
a boarding school founded by former
Indian-fighter Captain Richard Henry Pratt to remove young
Indians from their native culture and refashion them as members
of mainstream American society. Over the next two decades,
twenty-four more schools on the Carlisle model will be established
outside the reservations, along with 81 boarding schools and nearly
150 day schools on the
Indians’ own land.
On January 14,
Chief Joseph of the
Tribe addressed Congress about tribal lands stolen through treaties.
He gave the analogy that it was like having horses that he doesn’t
want to sell being sold by his neighbor, with the neighbor then
letting the buyer take the horses.
In January, the U.S. Army
rounded up 540
and, in what’s known as the
Paiute Trail of Tears, forcibly took
them to the Yakima Reservation in
On February 2, they arrived at the reservation after a forced march
through winter snows.
Civilization Regulations - Congress
set up a series of offenses that only
Indians could commit. These regulations outlawed
Indian religions, the practices of "so-called" medicine men,
ceremonies like the Sun Dance, and leaving the reservation without
permission. These regulations were in place until 1936.
A Century of Dishonor
publication. - Helen Hunt Jackson released her book detailing the
American Indians and criticizing the US government's treatment
January 18, 1881
Indian Reservation was established.
and 186 of his remaining followers surrender
Fort Buford, North Dakota. He is sent to Fort Randall,