"We do not want to sell a foot of our land that is the opinion of our
people. The whites can go and take the land and come out again. We do not
want them to build houses here."
about 1833, Ouray would grow up to become the leader of the
Uncompahgre band of the Ute tribe and known
as a man of peace.
According to oral
history passed down by Ute elders, he was
born on a gloriously clear night when a magnificent display of meteor
showers streaked across the black winter sky. The elders believed it
was a sign; a message from above of good things to happen.
Ouray’s mother was a
member of the Uncompahgre band of Ute and
his father, Guera Murah, was half
grew up in the Taos area where Spanish and English were the prevalent
languages and would not learn to speak the Ute
languages until later in life. He spent most of his youth working for
Mexican sheepherders and fighting against rival
When he was about 18
Ouray traveled into
and became a member of the Tabeguache Ute
band, where his father, despite his Apache
heritage, had become the leader. In 1859, he married a Tabeguache Ute maiden by the name of Chipeta, who was
actually a Kiowa Apache who had
been adopted by the
Ute as a child.
When his father died
in 1860, Ouray became chief of the Ute
Indians, including the Uncompahgre band. In Ouray’s role as chief, he
was considered one of the Utes' greatest
leaders with strong characteristics of patience and diplomacy. He was
often referred to as "The White Man’s Friend,” as he sought to work
with the white settlers and the government.
In October, 1863, Ouray negotiated a
treaty in which the Tabeguache Ute were
assigned a reservation, but, unfortunately for the Ute, the vast majority of their lands east
of the Continental United States, ended up in government hands. In
1868, he traveled to Washington, D.C. to represent his people and was
appointed "head chief of the Ute" by the
government. A new treaty created reservation lands in Colorado for
the Tabeguache, Moache, Capote, Wiminuche, Yampa, Grand River, and
Uinta, but again, more land was relinquished.
Though Ouray always tried
to secure the best possible conditions for his people while still
remaining friendly to the whites, each subsequent treaty brought
increasing losses of land for the Ute. For many Ute building resentments began to form and a
number of attempts were made on Ouray’s life. However, he survived and
maintained his conciliatory attitude.
With the discovery of
gold in Colorado,
conditions for the Ute changed dramatically as
miners flocked upon their lands. As a result, relations between the
Indians and the whites deteriorated. In the spring of 1878, Nathan Meeker
assumed the role of Indian Agent at the White River Agency. "Dictatorial”
in his brand of management, Meeker undiplomatically tried to force the Ute to farm, raise stock, discontinue their pony
racing and hunting forays, and send their children to school. Meeker,
determined to convert the Ute from primitive
savages to hard-working, God-fearing farmers, persisted in forcing his
reforms, even when warned that he was making the Ute furious. But Meeker ignored the warnings and ordered that a horse
racing track be plowed under to convert to farmland. He also suggested to
one that there were too many horses, and that they would have to kill some
of them. The Ute, whose land Meeker was plowing
under, resisted and a fist-fight occurred.
As a result, Meeker wired
for military assistance, claiming that he had been assaulted by the
Ute man, driven from his home, and severely
injured. The government responded by sending 200 troops led by Major T.T.