Eldorado Canyon, Nevada – Lawlessness on the Colorado River


Nelson Area

Nelson area in Eldorado Canyon by David Alexander.

The area surrounding Nelson and Eldorado Canyon in Nevada was first home to the ancient Ancient Puebloan Indians, and later the Paiutes and Mojave tribes. Living peacefully for hundreds of years, the Indians were intruded upon in 1775, when the Spaniards arrived in the canyon in their constant quest for gold. Founding a small settlement at the mouth of the Colorado River, they called it Eldorado. However, these early Spaniards somehow missed the rich gold veins just beneath the canyon’s flanks, finding silver instead. They soon found that the silver was not in high enough quantities to justify their operations, and moved on.

Seventy-five years later, in the 1850s, a new breed of prospectors began sluicing the many streams feeding into the Colorado River.

For a few years, the miners were able to keep their gold find a relative secret due to the remoteness of the area. However, this all changed in 1858 when the first steamboats began to make their way up the Colorado River from Yuma, Arizona. Before long, word spread and miners began to flood the area.

Ives Expedition 1858

Ives Expedition 1858

By 1861 miners had discovered the Salvage Vein about five miles up from the Colorado River. The rich, vertically stacked ribbon of gold ran through a steep ridge along one side of the canyon. The miners began at the top of a high hill, cutting down into the vein. Before long, several of the miners formed the Techatticup Mine, supposedly through a series of shady dealings. The name derives from the Paiute Indian word for hungry, a term often heard by early settlers from the starving Indians inhabiting the dry hills. The Techatticup Mine was once owned by Senator George Hearst of California, father of William Randolph Hearst of publishing fame.

Before long the Nelson District was dotted with several mines, including the Gettysburg, Duncan, Solar, Rand, Wall Street, Swabe and Golden Empire Mines in what was to become one of the earliest and richest mining districts in Nevada. The Techatticup Mine, along with the Gettysburg, was the first mines in Nevada to be worked by white men.

Many prospectors who found their way to the goldfield were reportedly Civil War deserters and disagreements and gunfights over gold and women became commonplace. Greed, claim jumping and vigilante justice fueled the fire. Meanwhile, the Techatticup Mine itself was in the midst of feuds over ownership, management and labor disputes, which soon earned it a notorious reputation. At one point the killings in the rowdy canyon, called home to as many as 500 miners, became an almost daily event where even lawmen refused to enter.

Despite the sinister reputation of the mine, the Techatticup was to become the most successful in the area, mining millions of dollars in gold, silver, copper, and lead throughout the years. For the next 70 years, miners at the Techatticup Mine dug deeper and deeper into the hard rock, working with picks and shovels in chambers lit by candles.

As the gold played out in one tunnel, they would carve a new one just beneath it using blasting powder, and then drag out the broken rocks to be pulverized and treated with cyanide to separate out the gold. Over the years, the miners excavated tiers of a dozen tunnels, the lowest of which could be reached by a long tunnel cut into the hillside some 500 feet below the upper entrance. The temperature remained constant in the tunnels at around 70 degrees and it is said that some of the miners slept inside their workplace to escape the desert heat.

Re-created mine buildings

The Techatticup Mine, along with dozens of others engendered a number of settlements including Nelson and Eldorado at the river’s edge. As the ore was extracted from the many area mines, it was then transported to Nelson’s Landing along the Colorado River and shipped by steamboat to Yuma, Arizona for overland shipment to San Francisco, California. The river also served as the primary source of much-needed supplies for the camps along the canyon.

In 1864, when the area was still a part of Arizona, the territory’s first stamp mill was built near the steamboat landing. The 10-stamp, steam-driven mill, then processed the ore from the area mines before shipping to Yuma.

The lawlessness continued as factions of Northern and Southern sympathizers developed among the miners during the Civil War. The strife and bitterness split the workers into two camps, severely hindering mine and mill production. Before long, Federal troops stationed downriver had to be brought in by steamboat to break up the factions before more bloodshed occurred. The lawlessness got worse after the area became part of Nevada when the nearest law officials were in Hiko, Nevada some 300 miles away. Finally, a military post was established in Eldorado Canyon in 1867 to protect the steamboat traffic and to keep an eye on the local Indians who were beginning to raid the canyon.

By 1883, a railhead was developed at Needles, California and the long riverboat shipments to Yuma were rerouted to Needles, where the ore was offloaded. Eventually, better overland routes eliminated the need for the steamboats.


Posse that recovered Queho’s remains stands at the mouth of his cave hideout.
From left, Clarke Kenyon, Frank Wait, and Art Schroeder. Photo courtesy UNLV Special Collections

In addition to the canyon’s numerous rowdy miners, two of Nevada’s most famous renegade Indians lived in Eldorado Canyon, the first of which, a man named Arvote, was said to have killed five area settlers. At about the same time a Cocopah Indian named Queho was terrorizing the area and was reportedly Nevada’s first serial killer. He was said to have murdered 23 people in the early 1900s. The last person Queho killed was Maude Douglas near the Techatticup Mine in 1919. Having already become Nevada’s Number 1 Public Enemy, the Indian was relentlessly pursued by sheriff’s posses but was never captured. What was thought to have been his remains were finally found in a cave in Eldorado Canyon in 1940.

In the early 11900s, Nelson’s Landing was one of the largest ports on the Colorado River and became even more important in the 1920s for two reasons.

The first was prohibition, enacted on January 16, 1920. On the Arizona side of the river in Mohave County, prohibition was strictly enforced and moonshine sold for as much as $50.00 a gallon. However, in Clark County on the Nevada side, prohibition was not enforced and homemade liquor sold for as low as $1.00 a gallon. This created a brisk trade along the river as bootleggers ran their white lightning into Arizona.

The second was the preliminary work required for the building of the Hoover Dam. Dozens of surveyors operated small boats from Nelson’s Landing, while many others were ferried across the river to complete their work. When the dam was completed, the area became one of the first main tourist sites as visitors were guided to the best fishing areas and taken on tours of the dam. Before long, Nelson’s Landing prospered as a resort, where boats, bait, gasoline, food, and cabins were provided.

The Techatticup Mine remained active until about 1945, producing more than 2.5 million dollars worth of gold, silver, copper, and lead, after which, it sat abandoned for almost five decades. In no time, the town of Nelson dwindled leaving little more than the remains of mine works and tailings among the scorpions and rattlesnakes.

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