Kate Carmack – Discovering Gold in the Klondike

Kate Carmack was one of the original discovers of the gold that led to the Klondike gold rush.

Kate Carmack was one of the original discoverers of the gold that led to the Klondike gold rush.

The first woman of the Klondike Gold Rush was Shaaw Tláa, also known as Kate Carmack. Though she is rarely mentioned as one of the original discoverers of gold in Bonanza Creek in August 1896, she was with George Carmack, Skookum Jim Mason, and Dawson Charlie when they found flecks of the precious metal glistening in the creek.

Shaaw Tláa was a Tagish Indian woman who was born near Bennett Lake in the Yukon Territory of Canada in about 1857. Her father, Kaachgaawáa, was the head of the Tlingit grow clan, while her mother, Gus’dutéen, was a member of the Tagish wolf clan. She grew up with her parents and seven brothers and sisters and brothers, near Carcross, Yukon.

As a young woman, she married her first cousin, a Tinglit Indian named Kult’ús, but in the early 1880s, he and their infant daughter died of influenza in Alaska. She then returned to her village in Yukon. In 1887, her brother, Keish, known as Skookum Jim Mason; and her nephew, K̲áa Goox̱, known as Dawson Charlie started a packing, hunting, and prospecting partnership with an American named George Washington Carmack. Within a year, she became Carmack’s common-law wife, took the name Kate Carmack, and began to travel with the three men.

The Carmack Cabin on Bonanza Creek, 1897

The Carmack Cabin on Bonanza Creek, 1897

Beginning in 1889, and for the next six years, the couple lived in the Forty Mile region of Yukon. There, George Carmack prospected, trapped, and traded, while Shaaw Tláa made winter clothing that she sold to miners. They had one daughter, Graphie Grace Carmack who was born in 1893, at Fort Selkirk.

In August 1896, Kate and George were traveling in remote Canada with her brother Skookum Jim and nephew, Dawson Charlie. As the four made their way back, they stopped to rest beside a Bonanza Creek which emptied into the Klondike River on August 17, 1896. When Skookum Jim bent over to get a drink, he saw flecks of gold glistening on the bottom. This find would soon set in motion the Klondike Gold Rush.

George Carmack

George Carmack

For the next two seasons, George and Kate along with the other two men worked their claims. Otherwise, little changed in Kate’s life.

After becoming wealthy, the little family traveled to Seattle and visited George’s sister Rose on her ranch in Cambria, California n the fall of 1898. While they were in Seattle, George flaunted his newfound wealth riding around town in a carriage bearing the immodest sign, “Geo. Carmack, Discoverer of Gold in the Klondike” and tossing coins to crowds.

In the meantime, adapting to big city life was not easy for Kate and at one point she was arrested for making a public disturbance. The Seattle Times was quick to print the story:

“Mrs. George W. Carmack, the Indian wife of the discoverer of the Klondike, who is probably the richest Indian woman in the world, was fined $3.60 by Judge Cann this morning for drunkenness.”

George, Kate, and Gracie Carmack

George, Kate, and Gracie Carmack

Within a year, the marriage was falling apart and George sent Kate and Graphie to live with his sister, Rose in California. He never returned.

George then went to Dawson, Yukon and continued to flaunt his “discoverer” status. He soon met Marguerite Saftig Laimee, a woman of questionable repute. Representing herself as the owner of a “cigar store,” Laimee was, in fact, the owner of a brothel. But George didn’t care and soon wrote his sister Rose, asking her to send Kate back to her clan, and informing them that he intended to marry Laimee.

Kate, however, refused to be tossed aside and made a legal appeal for her share of the couple’s $1.5 million worth of gold discoveries. She sued for divorce on the grounds of desertion and adultery. But, the court didn’t recognize the common-law marriage.

In July 1900, Kate and Graphie returned to Carcross. Her brother, Skookum Jim built her a cabin near his and Graphie attended mission and residential schools. Later that year, George Carmack married Marguerite Laimee in Olympia, Washington.

Kate Carmack 1919.

Kate never received her share of any mining riches. She ended up living off of a government pension and earned a small income from selling needlework to tourists. When her daughter Graphie was 16, George lured her to Seattle. It was a devastating loss for Kate as she held firmly to the Tagish belief that children belong with their mother’s clan. She lived the rest of her life in Carcross and died during a flu epidemic on March 29, 1920. She was buried in the Carcross cemetery at the age of 63.

George died a rich man in Vancouver, Canada in 1922. Marguerite inherited his wealth and died in California in 1949.

Graphie, married Jacob Saftig, the brother of George’s wife, Marguerite Laimee when she was 17. The couple lived in Seattle, Washington, and had three children. She never saw her mother again. Later, she divorced Jacob, moved to California, and remarried twice. She died at the age of 70 in 1963 in California.

© Kathy Weiser-Alexander/Legends of America, updated July 2021.

Also See:

Historic Women Photo Galleries

The Klondike Gold Rush by Strobridge & Co., 1897

The Klondike Gold Rush by Strobridge & Co., 1897

Klondike Gold Rush

Women in American History

Women of the Klondike Gold Rush


Klondike Gold Rush National Historic Park
Postal Museum
Roots Web