Summary of Native American Tribes – S

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Skidi and Wichita dancers, Edward S. Curtis, 1927

Skidi and Wichita dancers, Edward S. Curtis, 1927. Click for prints, downloads and products.

Skidi – A tribe of the Pawnee Confederacy, they were sometimes called Wolf Pawnee. Their language; however, differed slightly from that of the other Pawnee tribes. According to tradition the Skidi and Arikara were once united, but became separated during the northward migration, the Arikara keeping to the Missouri Valley and the Skidi settling on Loup, Nebraska, where later, three other Pawnee tribes built their villages. Their villages included supernatural underground dwellings of the mythic animals which “presided” over the ceremonies of their secret societies. Part of the Skidi tribe moved southward about 1770, approaching the Texas border. During the two centuries prior to their removal from Nebraska to Indian Territory in 1874 the Skidi, in common with the other Pawnee tribes, fought to hold their hunting grounds against intruders, and to that end, strove for the possession of horses.

Securing these animals became the chief incentive of war parties, which indicated a sign of wealth. The history of the Skidi does not differ materially from that of the other Pawnee tribes. They joined in the treaties with the United States, served as scouts in its army, and followed with the rest of the Pawnee to Oklahoma.

Skilloot – A Chinookan tribe found by Lewis and Clark in 1806 residing on both sides of Columbia River in Washington and Oregon, and numbering about 2,500 people. They were among the tribes almost exterminated by the fever epidemic of 1823. Later their principal village was Cooniac, at Oak Point, Washington. In 1850, they had been reduced to only about 200 and as an individual tribe, disappeared from history a few years later.

Snake – A name applied to many different bodies of Shoshonean Indians but most persistently to those of eastern Oregon, to which the following synonyms refer. These Indians form one dialectic group with the Paviotso of west Nevada and the Mono of south east California. The principal Snake tribes were on the Walpapi and Yahooskin.

Snohomish – A Salish tribe formerly living on the south end of Whidbey Island, Puget Sound and on the mainland opposite at the the mouth of Snohomish River in Washington. Their population was 350 in 1850. What was left of them moved to the Tulalip Reservation, Washington, mixed with other broken tribes.

Snoqualime/Snoqualmie – Belonging to the Nisqually branch of the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family, they lived on the on Snoqualmie and Skykomish Rivers in Washington. They were reported to have numbered 225 in 1857.

Soacatino – Also called Xacatin, they were a tribe met by the companions of Hernando de Soto  in northwestern Louisiana or northeastern Texas. They were probably Caddo but this has not been determined definitively.

Mission San Xavier del Bac, Detroit Photographic Co, 1902

Mission San Xavier del Bac, Detroit Photographic Co, 1902. Click for prints, downloads and products.

Sobaipuri – A Piman tribe, they formerly inhabiting the main and tributary valleys of San Pedro and Santa Cruz Rivers, as well as the Gila River between the month of the San Pedro River and the ruins of Casa Grande, and possibly eastward of this area in south Arizona. Missions were established among them by the Spaniards in the latter part of the 17th and beginning of the 18th centuries at Guevavi, Suamca, and San Xavier del Bac. They were said to have driven out of Aravaipa Canyon by the Apace and were forced to flee to the Pima. The Apache also caused them to give up their homes on the San Pedro River and merge into the Papago tribe, who in later years at least one of the former Sobaipuri towns — San Xavier del Bac.

Spokan – A name applied to several small bands of Salish, who lived on and near the Spokane River in northeast Washington. The name was originally employed by the Skitswish to designate a band living at the forks of the river, called the Smahoomenaish. However, white settlers extended the name to cover several allied divisions. Their population was estimated by Lewis and Clark in 1805 at about 600 people living in 30 houses. At the turn of the century, there were about 300 “Lower Spokan” and 238 “Upper Spokan” living at the Colville Reservation in Washington and almost 100 living on the Coeur d’Alene Reservation in Idaho.

Squaxon or Squakson – Belonging to the Nisqually branch of the coast division of the Salishan linguistic family, they lived on the North Bay of Puget Sound. They numbered about 1,000 in 1780 but by the turn of the early 1900s, they had been reduced to less than 100.

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Summaries:  A  B  C  D  E-I  J-K  L-M  N  O  P  Q-R  S  T-V  W  X-Z

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