Siletz – A Salish tribe who occupied the Siletz River in northwest Oregon, but ranged from northern California to southwest Washington. It was the southernmost Salish tribe on the coast. Later, the name was extended to designate all the tribes on the Siletz Reservation in Oregon which belong to the Athapascan, Yakonan, Kusan, Takilman, Shastan and Shahaptian linguistic families. Today, they are the Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians, a federally recognized confederation of 27 Native American tribal bands. They have some 4,500 enrolled members and own and manage a 3,666 acre reservation located along the Siletz River in the Central Oregon Coast Range.
Siksika – See Blackfoot
Sinagua – A pre-Columbian cultural group occupying an area in central Arizona between Flagstaff and Phoenix, Arizona including the Verde Valley and significant portions of the Mogollon Rim country between approximately 500 A.D. and 1425 A.D. Early Sinagua sites consisted of pit houses and later structures more closely resembled the pueblo architecture found in other cultures throughout the southwestern United States. They survived as hunter-gatherers and as early farmers. The last known record of Sinagua occupation was at Montezuma Castle National Monument around 1425 AD. The reasons for abandonment of their habitation are unknown, but warfare, drought, and clashes with the newly-arrived Yavapai people have been suggested. Several Hopi clans trace their roots to immigrants from the Sinagua culture, who believe their ancestors left the Verde Valley for religious reasons.
Sinkakaius – Meaning “between people,” they belonged to the interior division of the Salishan linguistic stock and were composed largely of people from the Tukoratum Band of Sinkaietk and the Moses Columbia people. They lived between the Columbia and the Grand Coulee Rivers in Washington.
Sinkiuse/Sinkyone – A former division of Salish, under Chief Moses, they lived on the east side of Columbia River from Fort Okinakane to the neighborhood of Point Eaton, Washington. They numbered about 300 in the early 1900s.
Sioux – The Sioux, often referred to as the Lakota, are part of a band of seven tribes that speak three different dialects, the other two being the Dakota and the Nakota. The Lakota are the most western of the three groups, occupying lands in both North and South Dakota. The Dakota live mostly in Minnesota and Nebraska, while the smallest of the three, the Nakota, reside in South Dakota or Canada. Lakota meaning “friends” or “allies” is sometimes also spelled “Lakhota.” This band migrated west from Minnesota after the tribe began to use horses. There were about 20,000 Lakota in the mid 18th century, a number which has increased to about 70,000, of which approximately 1/3 still speak their ancestral language. The Lakota were defeated slowly by the wholesale slaughter of the buffalo by the U.S. Army and military police actions herding all Indians onto reservations and enforcing government food distribution policies to ‘friendlies’ only, culminating, fourteen years later, in the killing of Sitting Bull. More …
Sissipahaw – A former small tribe of North Carolina, presumably Siouan, from their alliance and associations with known Siouan tribes. The site of their former village, known in 1728 as Haw Old Fields, was noted as the largest body of fertile land in the area. It was probably situated about the present Saxapahaw on Haw River, in the lower part of Alamance County, North Carolina. Nothing more is known of them beyond the general statement that they and other tribes of the region joined the Yamasee against the English in the war of 1715.
Siuslaw – A. small Yakonan tribe formerly living on and near Siuslaw River in western Oregon. By the early 1900s, the tribe was nearly extinct, with its few survivors living on the Siletz Reservation.
Skaddal – A small tribe numbering 200 persons, found by Lewis and Clark in 1806 on the Klikitat River in present-day Washington. They subsisted by hunting deer and elk, and traded with the Emeeshur and Skilloot for prepared fish. They were classed as a division of the Pisquow later as living about Boston Creek and Kahchass Lake, at the head of Yakima River.
Skagit – A band of Salish who lived on the Salish River in Washington, particularly about its mouth, and on the middle portion of Whidbey Island. They numbered about 300 in the mid 1800s and moved onto the Swinomish Reservation.
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