In America the President reigns for four years, and Journalism governs forever and ever.
— Oscar Wilde
Andrew Johnson (1808-1875)
Term (1865-1869) Vice President None
The 17th U.S. President, following the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln, Johnson presided over the Reconstruction era in the four years after the American Civil War. His position favoring the white South came under heavy political attack and his vetoes of civil rights bills embroiled him in a bitter dispute with Radical Republicans. He was impeached in 1868, but, was acquitted by a single vote in the Senate. He is commonly ranked by historians as being among the worst U.S. presidents.
Ulysses S. Grant (1822-1885)
Term (1869-1877) Vice President(s) Schuyler Colfax (1869-1873) Henry Wilson (1873-1875) None (1875-1877)
Rutherford B. Hayes (1822-1893)
Term (1877-1881) Vice President William Wheeler (1877-1881)
A lawyer, major general in the Civil War and 19th U.S. President, Hayes also served as the Governor of Ohio twice, and in Congress. During his presidency, Hayes ordered federal troops to suppress The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 and ended Reconstruction by removing troops from the South. After the removal of the troops, all southern states soon returned to Democratic control and the start of the Jim Crow South.
James A. Garfield (1831-1881)
Term (1881) Vice President Chester Arthur (1881)
A lawyer, Major General during the Civil War, and 20th U.S. President, he served only 200 days in office. Shot by Charles J. Guiteau on July 2, 1881, who was disgruntled by failed efforts to secure a federal post, one bullet grazed Garfield’s arm, while another lodged in his spine. Garfield became increasingly ill over the next few weeks due to infection causing his heart to weaken. He died of a massive heart attack on September 19, 1881.
Chester Arthur (1829-1886)
Term (1881-1885) Vice President None
Lawyer, politician, and 21st U.S. President, he assumed the role after James Garfield died. His primary achievement was the passage of the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act, which earned him the moniker “The Father of Civil Service” and a favorable reputation among historians. However, he failed to be nominated for re-election.
Grover Cleveland (1837-1908)
Term (1885-1889) Vice President Thomas Hendricks (1885) None (1885-1889)
Lawyer, politician, New York Governor, and the 22nd and 24th President of the United States, Cleveland is the only president to serve two non-consecutive terms (1885-1889 and 1893-1897). He won praise for his honesty, independence, integrity, and commitment to classic liberalism and reform. However, his strong positions took heavy criticism, and he was defeated in the re-election of 1888.
Benjamin Harrison (1833-1901)
Term (1889-1893) Vice President Levi P. Morton (1889-1893)
The grandson of president William Harrison, Benjamin served as a Brigadier General during the Civil War and served in the U.S. Senate before becoming the 23rd U.S. President. His administration is most remembered for economic legislation, including the McKinley Tariff and the Sherman Antitrust Act, and for annual federal spending that reached one billion dollars for the first time. He lost the re-election to Grover Cleveland in 1892.
Grover Cleveland (1837-1908)
Term (1893-1897) Vice President Adlai E. Stevenson (1893-1897)
Lawyer, politician, New York Governor, and the 22nd and 24th President of the United States, Cleveland is the only president to serve two non-consecutive terms. Shortly after Cleveland’s second term began, the Panic of 1893 struck the stock market, and he soon faced an acute economic depression. he declined to accept a nomination for a third term.
William McKinley, Jr. (1843-1901)
Term (1897-1901) Vice President(s) Garret Hobart (1897-1899), None (1899-1901), Theodore Roosevelt (1901)
The was the 25th President of the United States, and the last veteran of the American Civil War to be elected to the office. He presided over a return to prosperity after the Panic of 1893, and made gold the base of the currency. He also oversaw the Spanish-American War. He was re-elected in 1900, but was assassinated by an anarchist in 1901.