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Galena - A Lead Mining Maven

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Galena, Kansas

Galena, Kansas, had a peak population of about 10,000 during its mining hey days.


In the rocky hills and gravel-filled valleys of southeast Kansas is the small town of Galena, born of rugged characters when lead was discovered in 1877. Before this time, the land was only sparsely settled by hunters and farmers earning meager livings from the rocky and sterile soil.


The existence of lead in the area was known by the Indians long before the white settlers began to populate the area. Large lumps of almost pure lead were often found on or near the surface and would be melted and made into bullets at the camp fires.


In the spring of 1877, a couple of young white men found several heavy stones which contained high amounts of lead. The land owner, a German farmer by the name of Egidius Moll, wasted no time in making negotiations with the nearby Joplin, Missouri Mining Companies. Before long, more rich deposits of ore were discovered and by June 1, 1877, two rival companies were in the field bidding against each other for the lease and sale of mining lots. The two rival mining companies also formed their own town sites Empire City north of Short Creek, and Galena, south of the creek, which was named for the abundant bluish-grey lead, to the south.


Galena Kansas Vintage PostcardGalena was immediately laid out, and the excitement caused by the lead discovery was so great, that no sooner was a lot staked off than a purchaser was ready with the money in hand to buy it. The influx of people was extremely rapid, so that in the space of about two months Galena numbered a population of nearly 3,000 people. Business houses were hastily established, miners' shanties were built by the dozens and and the town site was everywhere being dug up with mining excavations.

A tract of eighty acres of railroad land adjoining the site was purchased by a joint stock company called the South Side Town & Mining Company, which also became a part of the town site.


Galena was incorporated as a city in May, 1877, in less than two months from the time it was laid out. That same month, a post office was opened and a newspaper, called the Galena Miner was established.


More wagons, tents and hastily constructed buildings sprang up in the new boomtown, which, within months, supported a population of almost 10,000.


For a time, a heated spirit of rivalry was carried on between Galena and Empire City, each keeping pace with the other, and seeking to excel in the race.




Short Creek, Galena, Kansas

"Red Hot Street," looking north from Galena to Empire City, with Short Creek in the foreground, Kathy Weiser, June, 2010.


The rivalry between the two mining companies carried forward into the building of the two towns, bound together by the rich veins of lead. Because Empire City was nearer the field of operations for the mining activities, the majority of new settlers first camped upon that town site. However, the natural advantage was with Galena, since nearly the whole, and by far the richest, of the lead field lay beneath and near the town. No sooner was this fact discovered, than Galena began to take the lead of Empire City. This change soon began to seriously discomfit the Empire camp, who strove arduously to turn the tide, and save themselves from being entirely absorbed.


With two cities striving to settle within their own limits and the thousands rushing to the camp, more friction naturally occurred. The prospect of keeping order in the two mining camps was not a very promising one. Columbus Street in Empire and "Red Hot" and Main Streets in Galena were the first to build up with business houses, which were of log and  frame boxes, hastily thrown together for temporary use.


The quarrel assumed a serious aspect when Empire City decided to stop their population from moving over to the Galena side. On the night of July 25, 1877, the city council of Empire City passed a resolution ordering a stockade eight feet high and one-half mile in length to be built along the south side of their city. If the plan was carried out, it would virtually stop all communication between the two cities and hinder public travel. The stockade was to enclose the south end of Columbus Street and the bridge over Short Creek.


Route 66 Postcard Coloring Book

As the stockade began to be built, it created such a ruckus that the workmen were given police protection while building the wall. Galena residents protested in vain, petitioning the city, which, in turn appealed to the U.S. Government to prevent the closing of a public highway to the U.S. mail.


However, as the gap was being closed and the action of the federal government was too slow, the Galena Mayor, acting under the authority of the city council, organized a posse of fifty citizens to prevent closing the gap. On August 15, 1877 at 4:00 am, the posse attacked, tore down, and burned the greater portion of the wall. Empire City, not anticipating the surprise attack, was unprepared, which resulted in the exchange of only a few shots and very little bloodshed.


For several years, the two towns would vie for dominance with constant feuds between not only the towns, but their residents. The war between the towns became so bad that the main connecting link between the two cities became known as "Red Hot Street, when feuding became so intense that doctors and undertakers began working nights and sleeping during the days.


This feud, coupled with the countless miners, transients, and outlaws hiding within its midst, provided a hotbed for violence. In this section of the town were innumerable saloons and gambling halls that catered to murderers, outlaws, and gamblers. During this time, many hardworking miners were lured inside to lose their hard earned gold at the gaming tables and other questionable pastimes. Some were never seen again.  

Mining near Galena, KansasDuring the early mining days, the population shifted and flourished along with the fortunes of the mining operations and many an enterprising entrepreneur became wealthy during the early days of Galena, building fine homes and buildings. Others, who did not find wealth in Galena, soon left in pursuit of other endeavors.


In the fall of 1877 a building was constructed to serve several church denominations, including the Presbyterian, Episcopalian and a Methodist congregations.


The first school was taught in the winter of 1877-78, in a building that had been built for a store room.


In the fall of 1878, H. Webb established a paper called the Short Creek Banner, but it was sold the following year, the name was changed to The Messenger and moved to Columbus.


In 1879, the Kansas City, Fort Scott & Gulf Railroad extended its line to Galena and before long the St. Louis & San Francisco Railroad followed suit, extending its line from Joplin, Missouri. Deeper mining operations began in earnest and the town soon saw all manner of passengers, freight and lead being shipped through the area. The same year the Presbyterians built their own church one-story frame building. 


A school building was also built in 1879, which was comprised of a large two-story frame structure containing four rooms. The school district also purchased four lots for the schoolhouse site, which were later found to contain rich lead deposits.  A second school building was erected in 1880 -- a two-story frame containing two rooms, and the land on which the previous school sat was leased for mining purposes, from which the school district profited handsomely. The Episcopalians erected their own one-story church building the same year.


The Short Creek Republican newspaper was established on September 16, 1880. The name would later be changed to the Galena Republican. It survived until 1900. Another newspaper called the Galena Times was founded in 1890, but suspended in 1899.


Mining Strike

Mining Strike, Frank Leslie' Illustrated Newspaper.

This image available for photographic prints and downloads HERE!


By the late 1890s Galena had 265 producing mines, two banks, 36 grocers, and more than four dozen other retails stores.


Galena continued to thrive and by 1904 there were over thirty mining companies situated in or near the town.


Finally, the dispute between Galena and Empire City entered the courts and after a long period of litigation, a truce was declared between the two cities, which, at last, began to work together in building one of the best mining camps in the world.


When Empire City became a suburb of Galena on July 9, 1907, the surrender of her rights as an incorporated city to Galena was made amid great rejoicing, and pieces of the old stockade were taken away as souvenirs by citizens of both settlements. Empire City was annexed into Galena as its Fifth Ward in 1910.


By that time, Galena boasted three banks, three newspapers, and an opera house. Though its primary lead and zinc mining and smelting remained its principal industries, there were also foundries, stamping works, grain elevators, a novelty works, and a broom factory. The population in 1910 was 6,096.


In 1926, when Route 66 came through Kansas, Galena, like other small towns along the Mother Road, responded with services to the many travelers, bringing with it a additional prosperity to the thriving  town.


Route 66 ProductsHowever, just a few years later, terrible labor strikes between the miners and the mining companies would result in hundreds of unemployed miners and bloodshed along Route 66. In 1935, the members of the Mine, Mills and Smelter Workers' International Union went on strike in the Tri-State Mining district. The mining companies were unimpressed and quickly replaced the strikers by non-union workers who were organized into a company union, commonly called the Blue Card Union.


As a result, a mob of angry unemployed miners blocked Route 66 and sprayed bullets and rocks onto any passing vehicles who failed to follow their commands. They were particularly interested in any vehicles that were transporting the scabs belonging to the Blue Card Union. Police officers were forced to detour the Route 66 traffic and then Governor Alf Landon, declared martial law in Galena, and dispatched National Guard troops to quell the violence.


The unrest; however, would continue for the next few years, before exploding into violence again in April, 1937 when the Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO) undertook to aid the unemployed workers belonging to the Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers' Union. While the unemployed miners were distributing leaflets for the CIO at a smelter in Joplin, Missouri, they were seized by Blue Card unionists and severely beaten on April 10, 1937. The next day, about 5,000 members of the Blue Card Union met at Picher, Oklahoma armed with clubs and pick handles to disperse a meeting of CIO organizers and wrecked the local Union Hall. They then traveled to Treece, Kansas where they demolished another Union Hall before continuing on to Galena.


Unemployed union members in Galena; however, had been forewarned and barricaded their meeting hall. When the Blue Card mob arrived, brandishing clubs, gunfire broke out and nine men were shot, one fatally. In the end, the hall was wrecked and the union records stolen. Twenty-five members of the Blue Card Union and ten members of the CIO were later arrested.


Though mining continued in the area until the 1970s, it was never the same. The mines were eventually exhausted and the population dwindled to less than a tenth of its former glory.


By the time the last lead and zinc mines closed in Cherokee County,  nearly 2.9 million tons of zinc and 700,000 tons of lead had been produced.


Greetings From Galena, Kansas Route 66 Mural - Jim HinckleyUp until just a few years ago, the Galena area, and all of the Tri-State Mining District, which encompasses approximately 2,500 square miles in southeastern Kansas, southwestern Missouri, and northeastern Oklahoma, was dotted with chat piles and mine tailings. These however led to environmental problems when the lead, zinc, and other minerals began to leech into the shallow groundwater. Contaminating wells and nearby streams and rivers, the Environmental Protection Agency began to clean up the area in 1983. Completed today, most of the old sites have been returned to their natural state. Few mining remnants can be seen other than buildings, foundations, and scattered mining equipment.


After the clean-up the area was still dangerous, as old mining shafts and tunnels still run beneath and, in 2006, a mine collapse caused  two historic buildings in Galena to cave way. Stabilization of buildings is an on-going effort today.


Galena is called home to about 3,000 people today and provides peeks at a number of historic buildings, including vintage examples of the Mother Road, as well as architecture from the booming cattle and mining days of this historic city.


A must stop along Route 66 is Cars on the Route (originally called 4 Women on the Route), housed in an old KanOtex Service Station. Right beside the station is "Tow Tater," a a 1951 International boom truck that was the inspiration for "Tow Matter" in the movie Cars, plus vehicles that resemble Doc the Hornet Hudson, Red (the fire truck), and a Buick as the Sheriff of Radiator Springs.


Make sure to stop at the Historical and Mining Museum to learn all about Galena's rich history.

Galena is four miles north of the Oklahoma border and immediately west of the Missouri state line.

If you're traveling Route 66, keep your eyes wide open because the next small town on the Kansas Mother Road is just some three miles down the road. Enjoy the ride as you head to Riverton, Kansas.




Kathy Weiser/Legends of America, updated April, 2017.



Galena-Empire City Slideshow:

Images available for Prints and Downloads HERE



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