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Fur Trade Companies - Page 3

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Fort Astoria, OregonPacific Fur Company (1810-1813) - Founded in June, 1810 by John Jacob Astor, half of the stock was held by the American Fur Company, owned exclusively by Astor. The other half was owned by working partners. A year after its founding, the company established Fort Astoria in Oregon. Astor planned the post to grow into a permanent settlement, with plans to develop a large trade ring that included New York, the Pacific Coast, Russian Alaska, Hawaii and China. The furs collected in the northwest and Alaska, would be shipped to China and exchanged for porcelain, silk and other cloth, and spices that would be brought back, via Hawaii to New York.


The first sea expedition on the Tonquin left New York in September, 1810, stopped at Hawaii where a number of Native Hawaiian laborers were picked up, and arrived at the Columbia River in April, 1811, where Fort Astoria was established. The ship then sailed up the Pacific Coast to trade, but were taken over by the Tlaoquiaht tribe of Clayoquot Sound, Vancouver Island. The warriors killed 61 men before the ship was blown up by a surviving crew member.


About the same time the first sea expedition started, Astor also mounted an overland expedition in 1810-12. Called the Astor Expedition, it was led by Wilson Price Hunt and was the first overland expedition from St. Louis, Missouri to the mouth of the Columbia River after the Corps of Discovery, led by Lewis and Clark.

The party ascended the Missouri River as far as the Arikara villages near present-day Mobridge, South Dakota, then went west overland. Along the way the expedition discovered South Pass, Wyoming, through which hundreds of thousands settlers would later travel the Oregon, California and Mormon trails through the Rocky Mountains. When they continued on to the Snake River in southern Idaho. They abandoned their horses at Fort Henry and built canoes, but had to abandon this idea when they encountered a number of rapids. After two men and many of their food and supplies were lost, they divided into three main groups, each making their way to the Columbia River. Most of them arrived at Fort Astoria in the early part of 1812.

That year, the company suffered several setbacks, the first of which was the supply ship Beaver being late to arrive. The loss of the Tonquin vessel had left the post vulnerable at Fort Astoria found itself at risk of being captured by the British during the War of 1812. The following year, Fort Astoria and all other assets in the area were sold to the  North West Company.


Rocky Mountain Fur Company (1822-1833) - Sometimes referred to as Ashley's Hundred, the Rocky Mountain Fur Company was organized in St. Louis, Missouri in 1822 by General William Henry Ashley and Major Andrew Henry. They posted advertisements in St. Louis newspapers seeking "One Hundred enterprising young men . . . to ascend the Missouri River to its source, there to be employed for one, two, or three years." Among those hired were Jedediah Smith, William Sublette, Jim Beckwourth, Thomas Fitzpatrick and David Edward Jackson, just to name a few. Rather than relying on trading furs and pelts with the Indians, the Rocky Mountain Fur Company trained their men to do the trapping.


Unlike their rivals, Hudson's Bay Company and the American Fur Company, the Rocky Mountain Fur Company built no forts or trading posts, as their men worked independently. However, the company held "rendezvous" every summer, gathering their men in various locations, where they could gather the pelts. It was also a chance for the mountain men to relax and enjoy themselves after long periods of working alone. They often held their rendezvous near a Hudson's Bay Company post to draw off some of their Indian trade. In 1826 Jedediah Smith, William Sublette and David Jackson bought the Rocky Mountain Fur Company. They hired more mountain men, some of which who would become the subject of many a dime novel, such as Jim Bridger, Joe Meek, Kit Carson and Robert Newell. The company prospered for the next seven years until the fur trade declined in the 1830s due to major decline in the beaver population and the fact that beaver hats were going out of style, replaced by hats made of silk.


Kathy Weiser/Legends of America, updated March, 2017.





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List of Old West Explorers, Trappers, Traders & Mountain Men

Trappers, Traders & Pathfinders



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