In his role as Chief Deputy Marshal, Earp would go after famed train robber, Dave Rudabaugh, following the outlaw's trail for 400 miles to
Fort Griffin, Texas. While there,
Wyatt visited the largest saloon in town, Shanssey’s, asking about
Rudabaugh. Owner John Shanssey said that
Rudabaugh had been there earlier in the week, but didn’t know where he was bound. He directed
Wyatt to Doc Holliday who had played cards with
Wyatt was skeptical about talking to Holliday, as it was well known that
Doc hated lawmen. However, when
Wyatt found him that evening at Shanssey’s, he was surprised at
willingness to talk.
Doc told Wyatt
that he thought that Rudabaugh had back-trailed to Kansas.
Wyatt wired this information to Bat Masterson and the
news was instrumental in apprehending Rudabaugh. The unlikely pair formed a friendship in Shanssey’s that would last for years.
In the fall of 1876, Wyatt Earp and his brother
Morgan left Dodge City for a while, traveling for the
Black Hills outside of Deadwood, South Dakota in search of gold. However, he returned to
Dodge in May of 1877 after James H. "Dog” Kelley,
Dodge City's new mayor, wired him, asking him to help with the Texas cowboys who were shooting up the town.
When he returned,
Wyatt was made the new town marshal and deputized his brother Morgan. He plagued the courts for more severe sentencing, barred certain men from the town, and organized a "citizens’ committee" of reformers to help watchdog the streets.
City Peace Commission in June 1883. Front, left to right: Charles E. Basset, Wyatt S. Earp, Frank McLain, and Neil Brown. Back, left to right: W. H. Harris, Luke Short, W. B. Bat Masterson,
and W. F. Petillon.
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In June 1877,
Ed Masterson was appointed an assistant marshal in
Dodge City. Later in the same year, his younger brother
Bat Masterson was chosen as an under-sheriff, until January 1878, when he became the sheriff. On April 9, 1878,Ed
Masterson was killed in a gunfight.
A third Masterson brother,
James was appointed to the
police force in June of 1878.
By the late 1870’s
Dodge City's reputation for lawlessness had spread as far as Washington, D.C. In a letter in the Washington D.C.’s Evening Star of January 1, 1878, stated, "Dodge
City is a wicked little town. Indeed, its character is so clearly and egregiously bad that one might conclude, were the evidence in the later times positive of its possibility, that it was marked for special Providential punishment.”
Later an editor of the Hays City Sentinel would write, after visiting
Dodge City, "Dodge is the Deadwood of Kansas. Her incorporate limits are the rendezvous of all the unemployed scallawagism in seven states. Her principal business is polygamy without the sanction of religion, her code of morals is the honor of thieves, and decency she knows not.”
Holliday arrived in
Dodge City with Big Nose Kate Elder, posing as his wife. Settling in room 24 of the
Dodge House, Doc mostly drank and gambled, but occasionally, he provided professional services to the towns people. Shortly after his arrival, an ad appeared in the Dodge City Times pronouncing: "J.H. Holliday, Dentist, very respectfully offers his professional services to the citizens of
Dodge City and surrounding country during the summer.”
But mostly he was gambling at the Alhambra and dealing cards at the Long Branch Saloon. Though
Dodge City citizens thought the friendship between
Wyatt and Doc was strange, Wyatt ignored them and
Doc kept the law while in
During those first years, the population varied according to the season, swelling during the summer with the influx of cowboys, cattle buyers, gamblers and prostitutes. Business houses, dance halls and saloons catered to the Texas trade. Gambling ranged from a game of five-cent "Chuck-aluck" to thousand dollar poker pots.
In June 1879, the Ford County Globe reported, "The boys and girls across the deadline had a high old time last Friday. They sang and danced, and fought and bit, and cut and had a good time generally, making music for the entire settlement. Our reporter summed up five knockdowns, three broken heads, two cuts and several incidental bruises. Unfortunately none of the injuries will prove fatal.”